Fabric Production

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Fibers are usually twisted together and spun into yarns.

Yarns are either woven or knitted to form fabric.

Color is added by dyeing or printing to enhance the fabric’s appeal.

A finish is applied to make the fabric suitable for its end use and to improve its appearance.

Plain weave: The simplest weave in which the weft (crosswise) yarn is passed over then under each warp (lengthwise) yarn.

A basket weave is one variation, with the weft yarn passing over two and under two warp yarns each pass.

xamples: Chiffon, seersucker, taffeta

Twill weave: A weave in which the weft yarn is passed over and under one, two, or three warp yarns beginning one warp yarn back on each new row.Used for durability, this weave produces a diagonal design on the surface.

Examples: denim, gabardine

  • satin weave: A weave that produces a smooth, shiny-surfaced fabric resulting from passing the weft yarn over and under numerous warp yarns to create long floats.
  • Examples: sateen, satin
  • Other Weaves

  • Pile weave—corduroy, velvet
  • Dobby—dotted swiss, pique
  • Jacquard—brocade, damask
  • Leno—fabrics with an open, lacy appearance
  • Weft knits: Knits made with only one yarn that runs crosswise forming a horizontal row of interlocking loops.\
  • Cut edges will cur,Weft knits run if snagged.
  • Examples: jersey, ribbed knits, sweater knits
  • Warp knits: Knits made with several yarns creating loops that interlock in the lengthwise direction.
  • Do not ravel
  • Have selvage edges
    Examples: tricot, raschel knits
  • Gauge: The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.
  • Others ways to construct

  • Nonwoven. Fibers are compacted together using moisture, heat, chemicals, friction, or pressure. Examples: quilt batting, garment interfacings, felt, artificial suede
  • Laces and nets. Made by knotting, twisting, or looping yarns. Example: lace
  • Braided fabrics. Created by interlacing three or more yarns to form a regular diagonal pattern down the length of the resulting cord. Examples: decorative trims, shoelaces
  • Bonded fabric. Made by permanently fastening together two layers of fabric by lamination. Examples: two fabrics bonded so that one serves as a self-lining as in skiwear or winter coats
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