Chapter 1, Earth, Moon, and Sun
-- Catie Deken --
This Tackk is about our Earth, Sun, and moon. I also added an extra bit about The phases of the moon.
The first phase of the moon is the 'half moon', or the first quarter.
The second phase is the waxing, or 'decreasing' crescent. This will become a new moon.
The next phase is the new moon, the time when you can't see the moon, even on a really clear night. This is also the second quarter of the moon cycle.
The fourth phase is the waning, or 'increasing' crescent.
The next phase is another half moon, but it is the third quarter and will become a full moon.
The sixth moon phase is the waning gibbous, and will become a full moon.
The seventh phase of the moon is the full moon, when the moon reaches its 'maximum fullness' an will start decreasing again.
The final phase is the waxing gibbous, which will turn back into the first quarter moon and start the cycle over again.
The Moon Data that I've collected over the past few days, starting April 8:
--Key Concepts - Page Six, Section 1:
1. How does Earth move in space?: The Sun is constantly spinning, and the Sun's rotation and gravity cause the Earth (and all the other planets) to revolve around the Sun.
2. What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?: The tilt of Earth's axis stays the same while it revolves around the Sun, causing the variation of seasons; When its summer in the Southern Hemisphere its winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
--Key Concepts - Page Sixteen, Section 2:
1. What determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?: The strength depends on two factors - the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
2. What two factors combine to keep the moon and Earth in orbit?: Inertia and gravity. For those of you who don't know, inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. Earth's gravity pulls the moon toward it, keeping the moon from just going in a straight line, off into space. And at the same time, the moons inertia keeps it moving.
--Key Concepts - Page Twenty, Section 3:
1. What causes the phases of the moon?: The moon phases are caused by the relative positions of the Earth, the moon, and the sun. If the moon is in - between the sun and the Earth, people on Earth are most likely to see nothing of the moon, and if they do see a bit, it would only be a sliver. When the Earth is between the sun and the moon, people on Earth are most likely to see a fuller moon, and when the moon starts to go off to the side of the moon the moon goes into its phases - Full moon, half, quarter... etc.
2. What are solar and lunar eclipses?: First, the solar eclipses. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between earth and the sun, blocking some sunlight and casting a shadow on Earths surface. Next, the lunar eclipse. During a lunar eclipse, Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. During a total lunar eclipse, you see the moon giving off a reddish glow which is caused by the Earths atmosphere bending a few of the suns rays towards the moon.
3. What causes the tides?: Tides are caused by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of Earth. On the side of Earth closest to the moon, the moon's gravity pulling the water toward it ever so slightly (which is pretty big for people) causes the high tides. The same goes for, strangely, the side of the Earth that is not facing the moon. The places on Earth that are not directly facing the moon or directly facing away from it are the places that are experiencing low tides.
--Key Concepts - Page Thirty, Section 4:
1. What features are found on the moon's surface?: Features on the moon's surface include maria, craters, and highlands. Maria is the Latin word for 'seas'. Galileo Galilei thought the flat, dark areas on the moon were oceans, but they are actually hardened rock formed by huge lava flows millions of years ago. Craters are large round pits on the moon's surface that were formed by the impact of meteoroids that struck the moon. Highlands are mountains. Highlands cover much of the moons surface.
2. What are some characteristics of the Moon?: Size and Density -- 3,476 Kilometers in diameter (a little less than the distance across the U.S. - about 1/4 of Earth's diameter), but the moon has only 1/80 of Earth's mass.; Temperature and Atmosphere -- In direct sunlight, the temperature on the moon is 130 degrees Celsius, and at night it goes down to -180 degrees Celsius. Temperatures on the moon vary so much because it has no atmosphere.; Water -- The moon has no liquid water, although, there may be large patches of ice near the moon's poles.
3. How did the moon form?: Scientists have come up with lots of theories on how the moon was created, but the one that best fits the evidence is the collision-ring theory: A couple billion years ago, the solar system was full of rocky debris. Some of the debris was the size of small planets. Scientists theorize that that one of these rocky, planet-sized objects collided with Earth's surface. Parts of both the object and Earth went flying out into Earth's orbit and gravity caused it to combine to form the moon.
--For the audio, I suggest listening to the second audio segment in this download. It may take a second to load, but in my opinion is the best one, and takes, honestly, the least time to load.--
RSVP -- Pool party on the sun! Who's in?!
Nice, warm, lava-water and a great view on top of a solar flare! We'll get to see the sun better than anyone has before, and we'll have a great story to tell if we get home!