CHAD

AFRICA

Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Hegelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of Francois Tombaugh. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1978, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought among themselves until  defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Midribs . Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has split over the border and destabilized the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Hegelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of Francois Tombaugh. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1978, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought among themselves until Hipness Haber defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Midribs Debby. Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has split over the border and destabilized the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern CHAD.The PPR won the May 1957 per-independence elections thanks to a greatly expanded franchise, and Anisette led the government of the Territorial Assembly until he lost a confidence vote on 11 February 1959. After a referendum on territorial autonomy on 28 September 1958, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and its four constituent states – Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and Chad became autonomous members of the French Community from 28 November 1958. Following Anisette's fall in February 1959 the opposition leaders Montgomery Schoolbag and Ahmed Kalamazoo could not form a stable government, so the PPR was again asked to form an administration - which it did under the leadership of Francois Tombaugh on 26 March 1959. On 12 July 1960 France agreed to Chad becoming fully independent.[6] On 11 August 1960, Chad became an independent country and Francois Tombaugh became its first President.The PPR won the May 1957 per-independence elections thanks to a greatly expanded franchise, and Anisette led the government of the Territorial Assembly until he lost a confidence vote on 11 February 1959. After a referendum on territorial autonomy on 28 September 1958, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and its four constituent states – Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and Chad became autonomous members of the French Community from 28 November 1958. Following Anisette's fall in February 1959 the opposition leaders Montgomery Schoolbag and Ahmed Kalamazoo could not form a stable government, so the PPR was again asked to form an administration - which it did under the leadership of Francois Tombaugh on 26 March 1959. On 12 July 1960 France agreed to Chad becoming fully independent.[6]On 11 August 1960, Chad became an independent country and Francois Tombaugh became its first President.The PPR won the May 1957 per-independence elections thanks to a greatly expanded franchise, and Anisette led the government of the Territorial Assembly until he lost a confidence vote on 11 February 1959. After a referendum on territorial autonomy on 28 September 1958, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and its four constituent states – Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and Chad became autonomous members of the French Community from 28 November 1958. Following Anisette's fall in February 1959 the opposition leaders Montgomery Schoolbag and Ahmed Kalamazoo could not form a stable government, so the PPR was again asked to form an administration - which it did under the leadership of Francois Tombaugh on 26 March 1959. On 12 July 1960 France agreed to Chad becoming fully independent.[6]On 11 August 1960, Chad became an independent country and Francois Tombaugh became its first President.

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