Civilizations of Early Southeast Asia(Pagan, Khmer, Trading, and Vietnam Kingdoms)
The Pagan Kingdom
Most of the southeast Asia kingdoms were happening around the same time period and the Pagan Kingdom started the latest, from 840-1200, lasting around 360 years. One of the rulers of the Pagan Kingdom was Anawrahta, him along with the other rulers used a Monarchy for their government. The Pagan Kingdom adopted a Buddhist culture. They used this culture to regulate all aspects of their lives. One of the greatest achievements of the Pagan Kingdom was the extravagant temples that they made. These were Buddhist temples and are admired all across the globe.
These are only a few of the temples that were made in the Pagan Kingdom.
The Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire was the second latest to arrive, starting in 800 and ending in 1220, 420 years. Like the Pagan Kingdom the rulers of the Khmer Empire ruled with a monarchy. These rulers also build a grand temple complex named Angkor Wat. The people of the Khmer Empire where either Hindu or Buddhist. You could find many different Hindu and Buddhist building throughout the empire. Some achievements of the Khmer Empire was the building of great temples and also their large scale irrigation system.
This is the Angkor Wat.
The Trading Kingdoms lasted 100 years, from 750-800. Unlike the other two kingdoms, the Trading Kingdoms ruled with a bureaucracy. They also adapted Buddhist 's and Hindu's culture and lifestyle. The Trading Kingdoms had one of the most important learning centers of Buddhism. Also created many beautiful Buddhist artworks throughout the Kingdom.
The bronze torso of Bodhisattva Padmapani.
Vietnam started the earliest out of the four kingdoms, starting in 110. It was started by the Chinese after conquering the land. A few of the leaders were Trung, Trac, and Trung Nhi. These and other rulers used a bureaucracy for their government. Confucianism and Doasim cultures absorbed different aspects of Chinese civilization. They also worshiped nature spirits. During the 1200's they fought off the Chinese invasion and later would gain their independence from China.
A Vietnam temple.