Political- The government was organized around the king who had a large advisory council. The empire was split into four provinces but all decisions were left to the emperor. There were also administrative departments that connected the local administration and the central government.
Interaction with the Environment- The empire created extensive road networks with "rest stops" for travelers and traders. The empire expanded out wards from the Ganges River.
Economical- The people had to pay a land tax, the more fertile the land the larger the tax because of the higher profit farmers received from the crops. There was a large amount of foreign trade for goods like indigo, cotton and silk. They used the Silk Road as one of their trade routes.
Militaristic- Even though it was ruled by a central government it was split into four provinces. These leaders would advise the king but any military action had to be approved by the king.
Art- They built many Stupas and built many decorated rock cut caves. Pillars were erected, covered in artwork such as animals and nature scenes. There were two forms of art common and royal, the royal being the pillars.
Social- They had a well established caste system with seven castes that were based on occupation rather than birth. The higher and royal classes were restricted to their class for marriage but every other class was free to marry anyone. There were no slaves and women could enjoy high social status.
Technology- They made rock cut temples and monostaries, many being carved from granite, that were decorated with pillars. Extensive road networks were created to improve trade and communication.
Education- The empire had a unique system of education where all education was to be done in the house of a guru. Both boys and girls had access to some sort of an education but the quality often depended on social class.
Religion- The empire was mainly Hindu until the King Ashoka spread Buddhism across the empire. The caste system began to crumble as Buddhism spread across the empire allowing more social and religious freedoms.