Eco Systems

The Forest Ecosystems

They are the ecosystems in which an abundance of flora, or plants, is seen so they have a big number of organisms which live in relatively small space. Therefore, in forest ecosystems the density of living organisms is quite high. A small change in this ecosystem could affect the whole balance, effectively bringing down the whole ecosystem. You could see a fantastic diversity in the fauna of the ecosystems, too.

The Desert Ecosystem
Desert ecosystems are located in regions that receive an annual rainfall less than 25. They occupy about 17 percent of all the land on our planet. Due to the extremely high temperature, low water availability and intense sunlight, fauna and flora are scarce and poorly developed. The vegetation is mainly shrubs, bushes, few grasses and rare trees. The stems and leaves of the plants are modified in order to conserve water as much as possible. The best known desert ones are the succulents such as the spiny leaved cacti. The animal organisms include insects, birds, camels, reptiles all of which are adapted to the desert (xeric) conditions.

The Grassland Ecosystem

Grasslands are located in both the tropical and temperate regions of the world though the ecosystems vary slightly. The area mainly comprises grasses with a little number of trees and shrubs. The main vegetation includes grasses, plants and legumes that belong to the composite family. A lot of grazing animals, insectivores and herbivores inhabit the grasslands.

The Mountain Ecosystem
Mountain land provides a scattered and diverse array of habitats where a large number of animals and plants can be found. At the higher altitudes, the harsh environmental conditions normally prevail, and only the treeless alpine vegetation can survive. The animals that live there have thick fur coats for prevention from cold and hibernation in the winter months. Lower slopes are commonly covered with coniferous forests.

Aquatic Ecosystems
The aquatic ecosystem is the ecosystem found in a body of water. It encompasses aquatic flora, fauna and water properties, as well. There are two main types of aquatic ecosystem - Marine and Freshwater.

The Marine Ecosystem

Marine ecosystems are the biggest ecosystems, which cover around 71% of Earth's surface and contain 97% of out planet's water. Water in Marine ecosystems features in high amounts minerals and salts dissolved in them.

The Freshwater Ecosystem
Contrary to the Marine ecosystems, the freshwater ecosystem covers only 0.8% of Earth's surface and contains 0.009% of the total water.

1. decomposer=an organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.

2. consumer=a person who purchases goods and services for personal use.

3. ecosystem=a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

4. producer=a person, company, or country that makes, grows, or supplies goods or commodities for sale.

5. food chain=a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.

6. biotic=of, relating to, or resulting from living things, especially in their ecological relations.

7. abiotic=physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms.

8. adaptation=the action or process of adapting or being adapted.

What are some examples of biotic factors in a wetland ecosystem?

Abiotic factors are sunlight, air, climate, soil, water, rocks, and temperature. Biotic factors are turtlehead flowers, water, trees, butterflires, competition, bacteria, carrying capacity, plaintain, ash, and the false foxglove.

example of a wetland ecosystem food chain

We will discuss basic wetland food chains but, in reality, no ecosystem has simple independent food chains like the examples above. Food chains are more complex because of seasonal diet changes and multiple links. For example, not all bugs eat plants, many eat other insects. Fish eat a variety of bugs, depending on the season, and some fish species feed on plant matter. The pelican, like many wetland birds, eats a variety of fish and bugs. This complex interdependence of species is called a food web.

Energy enters the ecosystem food chain in what form?

Energy enters a food chain in the form of sunlight, and leaves the food chain in the form of heat.

The arrows on question 11 represent the producer to the consumer.

What might happen to the food chain if one element were to be eliminated (by disease or habitat loss, for example)?

Most animals move to different ecosystems or they willl die out.

In addition to improving water quality through filtering, some wetlands maintain stream flow during dry periods, and many replenish groundwater. Many Americans depend on groundwater for drinking.

Wetlands function as natural sponges that trap and slowly release surface water, rain, snowmelt, groundwater and flood waters. Trees, root mats, and other wetland vegetation also slow the speed of flood waters and distribute them more slowly over the floodplain. This combined water storage an braking action lowers flood heights and reduces erosion. Wetlands within and downstream of urban areas are particularly valuable, counteracting the greatly increased rate and volume of surface- water runoff from pavement and buildings. The holding capacity of wetlands helps control floods and prevents water logging of crops. Preserving and restoring wetlands, together with other water retention, can often provide the level of flood control otherwise provided by expensive dredge operations and levees. The bottomland hardwood- riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River once stored at least 60 days of floodwater. Now they store only 12 days because most have been filled or drained.

The ability of wetlands to control erosion is so valuable that some states are restoring wetlands in coastal areas to buffer the storm surges from hurricanes and tropical storms. Wetlands at the margins of lakes, rivers, bays, and the ocean protect shorelines and stream banks against erosion. Wetland plants hold the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.