Horses' Influence on the Old and New Worlds
Horses were only originally available to humans in the Old World. They were first domesticated between 4000 and 3500 BCE on the Eurasian Steppes, and Asians were first to use them as a very big advantage in war. A very big reason for the Mongol success was their use of horses. Middle Easterners originally bred a specific breed, the Arabian horse, between 3500 and 2500 BC. Around 100 BC, horses were being used for many things in the Middle East, mainly quicker transport (pulling wagons, chariots, and carriages) than they would have had with oxen. Around the 12th century in Europe the horse collar was created. This allowed horses to be used very efficiently for plowing, which created more crops and less people/time needed to produce them. In 1492, when Columbus discovered the New World, he brought horses with him. This gave Native Americans a new resource, and with it they were able to kill buffalo and travel further distances, since they were nomadic. It also was a status symbol, making the beginnings of social classes in the Native American societies. Horses were integrated very quickly into all Native American societies, and for all people, they created more efficiency and progress.