Genetics Vocab

Chromosomes

Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.

humans have 23 chromosomes in their DNA

Genes

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Ex: Mom has blonde hair dad has brown hair but you have blonde hair from your mom.

Traits

  1. A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism that may be inherited, be environmentally determined or be a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a character or abstraction of an attribute, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.

Dominant Genes

the gene that is stronger/shows compared to a recessive gene.example brown eyes over blue

Recessive Gene

A recessive gene is a gene that is not dominant, but only manifests when a gene of both parents is the same. example blue eyes are recessive because they most likely will be brown unless both parents have blue eyes.

Genotype

the genetic constitution of an individual organism.gene combination for a trait. For example, hair color

Phenotype

  1. the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.description of trait. for example,Size of a bird’s beak, Length of a fox’s tail ,Color of the stripes on a cat