March 11–13, 1938 Germany incorporates Austria in the Anschluss.
September 29, 1938 Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France sign the Munich agreement which forces the Czechoslovak Republic to cede the Sudetenland, including the key Czechoslovak military defense positions, to Nazi Germany.
March 14–15, 1939 Under German pressure, the Slovaks declare their independence and form a Slovak Republic. The Germans occupy the rump Czech lands in violation of the Munich agreement, forming a Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
March 31, 1939 France and Great Britain guarantee the integrity of the borders of the Polish state.
April 7–15, 1939 Fascist Italy invades and annexes Albania.
August 23, 1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a nonaggression agreementand a secret codicil dividing eastern Europe into spheres of influence.