Civil Rights Timeline
Brown Vs. Board of Education
a) Oliver Brown's child could not go to a white school, so Brown went to the court to change the rules, so his child could get in a white school
b) Oliver Brown (father) Chief Justice Earl Warren (his note helped change the courts' minds)
c) This event changed the way schools are, now all people go through the same type of schooling, instead of different school for each race, we all go to one school. African Americans get the same education as everyone else, and they have the same opportunities as whites.
Boycott of segregated bus system
a) The Montgomery Bus Boycott started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white person. She was fined, and a large group of African Americans started not taking the bus. They would walk to where they needed to go.
b) Rosa Parks group of activists Martin Luther King Jr.
c) The importance of this event is that after the boycott the African Americans had the freedom to choose where they sit on a bus. Instead of having to go to the way back they could sit up front. On crowded buses they do not have to get up and stand so a white person could sit down. They get more of the american rights that were being held from them.
Integration of Central High school
a) After the passing of a law the school were not all separated. Nine African American students started going to Central High, which is a white school. This was not as easy as it sounds though, the first day they showed up to guards blocking their way into the school. The governor said he sent them there to protect the nine students. The next couple of days were hard for them, soon they had a whole group of people protecting them.
b)Governor Orval Faubus, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls
c)Even though this was difficult to start, no mostly all schools in America are together, all races. This helped people realize that African American students are people too, and they should get the same education as white people.
First lunch-counter sit-in
a)Four men who had a dream of one day having the freedom that they deserved set out to get it. All four of them went to Woolworth store, and sat down at the white only counter. They tried to order coffee but they were denied the request. Each day they would bring more people with them and rally.
b) the four men were; Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, David Richmond
c) It showed some whites that the rights for African Americans were still limited. Not all whites were against the African Americans. They helped support the African Americans in their protests.
a) Seven African Americans, and six white activists took a stand against the segregated bus rules. The thirteen people walked on to a white-only section of the bus and rode. At one stop they people were awaited by an angry white mob. The bus did not stop at the bus station, but was followed by the mob. They shot the bus tires out and threw a bomb into the bus. The 13 people escaped the bus just in time before it blew up, but was beaten by the mob.
b) some main people involved in this event were; John Lewis, and Albert Bigelow
c) this showed how cruel people can be to people who are different. 13 people go out to prove that they can ride the bus, just to be shut down and beaten. The whites think they are superior over the African Americans.
Integration of the University of Mississippi
a) An African American male enrolled to a white college. The first day is was supposed to show up there was a mob of white students blocking his entrance. The results were 2 dead, more than 100 students were wounded. A bunch of the students were arrested.
b) University of Mississippi students James Meredith
c) All he wanted was to go to a white college and make a difference. He never did get to go to the University of Mississippi. The unfairness of the situation was obvious to the Americans that witnessed it. It proved to other students that want to make a difference that it takes hard work, and that you will most likely get hurt in the process.
March on Washington
a) Over 200,000 people came to Washington D.C. for a rally. This is the rally where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech. The rally was a politic rally about jobs and freedom for African Americans.
b) Martin Luther King Jr. , John Lewis, Josephine Baker, Mahalia Jackson, Joan Baez, and Bob Dylan
c)It helped motivate the African Americans and bonded them more. Hope is what came from most of the speeches, hope for a better life for you and your families. Hope for better education, and hope for freedom.
Campaign to desegregate city
a) a group of African American children and teens thought it was time to take matters in to their own hands. Most of them were raised in a home where activists lived, so they know what happened. They wanted to start non-violent protests to get the business leaders upset.
b) African American teens and children
c)Having them take a stand, it showed the adults that you can never be too young to make a difference. The children and teens showed that you do not always have to be violent to get your point across.
Murder of Medgar Evers
a) Medgar Evers was a war veteran who joined N.A.A.C.P which stands for National Association of the Colored People. He went around encouraging African American people to vote. While he was finding witnesses and evidence for the murder of Emmitt Till, he was shot. Byron De La Beckwith was tried three times for Evers's murder, only the last trail was he found guilty. De La Beckwith was sentenced to life in prison.
b) Bryon De La Beckwith Medgar Evers
c)The first two trails were filled with an all white jury, the last one where he was convicted it was a mixed jury. It proves that even though all the evidence is lined up and he can be proven guilty, whites still did not all approve and/ or like African Americans. They did not like them enough to rule unjustly to make the whites look innocent.
Civil Workers Killed
a) Three CORE members went missing, the FBI went out searching for them, when he found them they were all dead. The members were on their way to a church that had been set on fire, on the way back they were stopped by an officer and put in jail. After being let out of jail they were stopped again by a member of KKK.
b) Michael Schwerner Andrew Goodman James Chaney
c) The three men were looking for a change, the KKK killed a lot of African Americans who wanted change. This shows that they did not want African Americans to be on the same level of civilization as whites, that they even killed whites to prevent it.
March for voting rights
a) Martin Luther King Jr. lead a walk from Selma to Montgomery to the capital. They did this to show the importance of letting African Americans the right to vote. Along the way they came head to head with officials but they marched all day and night until they arrived.
b) Martin Luther King Jr. Group of Activists
c) By marching it shows that they care enough to show the government that they too deserve the right to vote. The right to vote bill for them was passed a year after this event. They showed determination to achieve the goal that they wanted.
Murder of Martin Luther King Jr.
a) At the young age of 39 the King was announced dead. On his way to dinner, on April 4th of 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot in the jaw. He was shot by James Earl Ray while he was on the balcony of his second floor hotel room. After being rushed to the Memphis hospital he passed away.
b) Martin Luther King Jr. James Earl Ray
c) Even though Luther was dead the hopes of the African American people burned on. His legacy was carried out l0ng after, he inspired a lot of people. His death was a statement of its own. He was willing to motivate people up to the point of his death.