Civil Rights

Anna P. Vang
7th Hour U.S. History

There were 12 events that happened

1954 Brown vs Board of Education

a. What: Brown vs Board of Education

b. Who: Brown, school district & Supreme Court

c. Why: Ruling segregation public education that is unconstitutional

1957 Integration of Central High School

a.  What: Little Rock Nine (nickname for the 9 students). A mob of Americans gathered in front of the school and were yelling and throwing things at them.

b. Who: Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Wallf. The Americans, Central High School, Daisy Bates and Governor Orval Faubus  

c. Why: Martin Luther King had wrote a letter to Daisy Bates (the NAACP President) to allow a couple students to attend school.

1968 Murder of Martin Luther King Jr.

a. What: Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on Thursday April 4th, 1968 at 6:05pm  

b. Who: Martin Luther King Jr and James Earl Ray (suspect)

c. Why: Martin Luther King Jr was the Civil Rights leader and was leading it since mid-1950s. He used many combinations of many powerful words and non-violent tactics, such as sit-ins boycotts and protest marches to fight against segregation. He tried to give a life serving for his people.

1962 Integration of University of Mississippi

a. What: James Meredith attempted to attend to University Of Mississippi and a chaos broke out on the Ole Miss campus, with riots ending, two dead,  hundreds wounded, and many arrested.

b. Who: James Meredith, University of Mississippi, Students of UM, President John F. Kennedy.

c. Why: Meredith made a solitary protest call, "March Against Fear" in 1966. While marching he was shot with a sniper. But Civil Rights leaders, Martin Luther King Jr, Stokely Carmichael, Floyd McKissick had continued to march in Meredith's name until he recovered.

1963 Murder of NAACP Leader Medgar Evers

a. What: African American Civil Rights leader, Medgar Evers was shot to death outside of his home in Jackson, Mississippi.

b. Who: Medgar Evers, Byron De La Beckwith, and African Americans

c. Why: Medgars volunteered for the U.S. Army and participated in the Normandy invasion. He had joined the NAACP and traveled through his home state encouraging poor African Americans to register to vote and recruiting them into the civil rights movement.  

1964 Murder of Three Civil Rights Workers

a. What: Michael, Andrew, and James were killed by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) near Meridian, Mississippi while working on registering African Americans to vote.

b. Who: Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney (victims), and the KKK

c. Why: All three of them were members of the CORE. They were just trying to help and encourage the African Americans to vote and have the equal rights.

1963 Campaign to Desegregate City, Four Girls Killed in Bombing Church

a. What: Addie, Carole, Cynthia, and Denise who are 11-14 years old was killed by a bomb in Birmingham Church.

b. Who: Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley, and Denise McNair (victims), Martin Luther King Jr. and bomber.

c. Why:  Over 8,000 people attended the four girls funeral. All the African Americans didn't even ask if it was an accident, they knew it wasn't an accident. Many explosions has happened before in "Bombingham."

1965 March For Voting Rights To Montgomery

a. What: Protesters attempted to march from Selma to the Capital of Montgomery and then met with violence resistance by the state local authorities.  

b. Wh0: Martin Luther King Jr. Protesters, and National Guard.

c. Why: It was a great historic march with the participation with King Jr. It had helped raise awareness of the difficulty faced by the black voters in the South.

1954-1956 Boycott of Segregated Bus System

a. What: The Montgomery Bus Boycott started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white person. She was fined and a large group of African American started not to take the bus. They would just walk to get where they need to go.

b. Who: Rosa Parks, group activists, and Martin Luther King Jr.

c. Why: After the boycott the African Americans had the freedom to choose where they sit on the bus Instead of having to go to the way back, they could just sit up front. They also don't have to give up their seats for a white person and stand. They are finally getting the rights that were being held from them.

1961 Freedom Rides

a. What: Seven African Americans and six white activists took a stand against the segregated bus rules. The thirteen people walked on to a white-only section of the bus and rode. At one of the stop were awaited by an angry white mob and was beaten. They shot the bus tires and threw a bomb at it. Only 13 people escaped the bus just before it blew up.

b. Who: John Lewis, Albert Bigelow, and the 7 African Americans, and  6 white activists

c. Why: This shows the cruelty of some people. And those 13 people who had escaped still went out and prove that they can still ride the bus.

1960 First Lunch-Counter Sit-In

a. What: Four men who had dream of having the freedom of sitting on the counter for lunch. All four of them went to Woolworth store and sat down at the only white counter. They tried to order coffee, but was just denied. Each day they went, they would bring more people with them and protest.

b. Who: Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, David Richmond and other African American activists.

c. Why: Shows the whites that African Americans were still limited from equal rights.

1963 March On Washington

a. What: Over 200,000 people came to Washington D.C. for a rally. This is the rally where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech. The rally was a politic rally about jobs, equal rights, and freedom for African Americans.

b. Who: Martin Luther King Jr., John Lewis, Josephine Baker, Mahalia Jackson, Joan Baez, and Bob Dylan

c. Why: It helped motivate the African Americans and bonded more. It brought them together as one and stand up for their rights. It encouraged them to be strong and fight for their freedom.

Comment Stream