Review Project

Convection Currents in the Ocean (Sophie)


A gyre is a whirl of wind that forms over a large body of water. The major gyres of the ocean include: North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Ocean gyres.

El Niño is warmer part of the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and it creates a band of warm ocean water that forms in central and east-central equatorial Pacific.

La Niña is part of the El Niño coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.

Convention currents are hot and cold air rotating in the atmosphere like magma rotating in the asthenosphere.Surface convection currents are mostly dealing with wind and temperature as on the other hand deep convention currents deal more with salt.   

Convection Currents in the Atmosphere (Jorge)

Coriolis Effect

A deflection of moving objects when the movement is almost rotating. The deflection is to the left of the motion of the object. Ex; if the rotation is clockwise, the deflection will go counterclockwise.

Trade Winds/Westerlies/Easterlies/Doldrums

Trade winds are the prevailing patterns of easterly surface winds in the tropics. Westerlies are the winds that go from the west to east. Easterlies are the cold, dry winds that travel from the North and South Poles down to the Equator. Doldrums are colloquial expression

Convection Cells

Convection Cells are what happen when there's difference in density within a body of liquid or gas. This results in rising and/or falling currents.

Jet Stream

Jet streams are narrow, fast moving gusts of wind that flow 10 kilometers above the Earth.

Air Masses, Fronts (Jose)

mP , mT, cP, cT, cA:

  • Air masses are masses of air with horizontally uniform temperature, humidity, and pressure.
  • Air masses with warmer temperatures form near the equator, and air masses with cooler temperatures tend to form closer to the poles. (North and South Poles)
  • The image bellow shows where these different air masses form.

Cold, Warm, Occluded, and Stationary Fronts:

  • Cold fronts occur when the cold air mass moves towards a warm air mass and  sinks under a warm air mass, sometimes producing precipitation and colder temperatures in that area.
  • Warm fronts occur when a warm air mass moves towards a cold air mass and rises over the cold air mass, sometimes producing warmer and moist temperatures in that area.
  • Occluded fronts occur when a cold front overtakes a warm front. A developing cyclone typically has a preceding warm front (the leading edge of a warm moist air mass) and a faster moving cold front (the leading edge of a colder drier air mass wrapping around the storm).
  • Stationary fronts occur when both air masses stay put, creating a storm in between them.

Local Winds/Pressure (Sara)

Sea Breeze/Land Breeze

A sea breeze is a light wind blowing toward the land from the sea, often in the daytime due to relative warmth from the sun.

A land breeze is a light wind blowing from the land to the sea, often in the night due to relative warmth from the sea.

Low/High Pressure

High Pressure is a whirling mass of cool,stagnant air that often brings fair weather with light wind. This type of pressure spirals from a high pressure center in a clockwise rotation, this takes place in the northern hemisphere.

Low pressure is when the air rises and condenses into clouds. Usually in a        Low Pressure Area situation, cloudy weather and rain result.

Comment Stream