Earth, Moon, Sun
Section 1 Earth in Space
How does Earth move in space?
Earth travels in two major ways, Rotation and revolution
The spinning of Earth on its axis is a rotation it takes 24 hours to do a full rotation which is a day.
The movement of one object around another is revolution a full revolution is 365 days.
What causes the Cycle of seasons on Earth.
Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun. If there was no axis, we would have no seasons because Earth rotates on the axis. When the North end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, its winter in the United States.
Section 2 Gravity and Motion
What determines the strength of gravity between two objects
The strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on two factors, the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
weight is the force of gravity on an object.
gravity attracts all objects toward each other
What two factors combine to keep the moon and Earth in Orbit?
Isaac Newton said that the 2 factors are inertia and gravity. Combine to keep Earth in its orbit around the sun and the moon in its orbit around Earth.
inertia the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
newtons first law of motion states that every object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion
Section 3 Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
What causes the phases of the moon?
The changing positions of the moon, sun, and Earth causes the phases of the moon.The moon also rotates on its axis which causes the moon phases to occur as well. The phase of the moon you see depends on how much of the sun side of the moon is facing Earth.
Phases the different shapes of the moon you see from Earth.
What art the solar and lunar eclipses?
When the moon's shadow hits Earth or Earths shadow hits the moon, an eclipse occurs.
What causes the tides?
Tides that we see are most likely caused by differences in how much the moons gravity pulls on different parts of the earth. The force of gravity pulls the moon and Earth (including water on Earth) toward each other.
Tides the rise and fall of ocean water every 12.5 hours.
Spring Tide When the gravity and the sun pull in the same direction it produces a tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides
Neat Tides a tide with the least difference betwen consecutive low and high tides.
Section 4 Earth's Moon
What features are found on the Moons surface?
Some of the features on the moons actual surface are maria, craters, and highlands. Updated pictures have also shown us in more detail what Galileo could see from his telescope.
maria the dark, flat areas on the moons surface
craters large rounds pits
highlands the light-colored features that cover much of the moons surface.
meteoroids chunks of rock or dust from space.
What are some characteristics of the moon?
The moon is dry and airless. compared to Earth, the moon is small and has large variations in its surface temperature. The moon is 3,476 kilometers in diameter. On the moon, the temperature ranges from 226 degrees Fahrenheit to -292 degrees Fahrenheit. The moons surface gravity is so weak that gases escape easily. The moon has no water at all. Some rumors say that there was ice patches near the moons poles.
How did the moon form?
The theory of the moons origin that seems to best fit evidence is called the collision-ring theory. Scientists theorize that a planet-sized object collided with earth to form the moon. Material from the object and Earths outer layers was ejected into orbit around earth.