With my knowledge experience Asian history.
Ranges from Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, and Vietnam.
First lets start with Japan
The land of the "rising sun" first started out with the natives of the island, the Ainu (Eye-noo). Most Scientist don't know where the Ainu came from but they had lived peacefully on this island until migrants from Asia came over to the land. These Migrants were hunters and gatherers soon they began to develop distinct cultures and customs. Soon the migrants drove out and took over Japan. These migrants soon became the Japanese.
The Japanese soon developed the beliefs of Shinto or "way of the kami" In Shinto everything in nature has a kami. Unlike religions though they don't have a book they live by. But Shinto does have religious buildings called torii, torii are gates that mark the entrance to shrines.
Down below is an example of a torii, the most famous torii is the Itsukushima Shrine its in the next slide.
The birth of political states in Japan started off in the Yamato clan. The Yamato clan lived on the rich farming plain Yamoto on the island of Honshu. By 500 AD Japan began to develop control over Honshu. Soon as terrirotry expanded Japan leaders of the Yamato Clan began to call themeselves emperors. Soon other clans began to develop power and took over the Yamato clan but instead of removing the Yamato emperor they used him as political figure. This system of government continued until the 1900's.
The Heian Period
True or False Tokyo was and has always been the original Capital of Japan? False! Even though Japans Capital today is Tokyo the original used to be Heian or now called today Kyoto. During this era 794-1185 Japanese culture flourished. During this time many courts were constructed in beautiful palaces. Some Women attended these courts and soon began to learn, write and read Japanese. One popular art was the Monogatari or fictional prose. Some women in this society even went on to compose early Japanese Literature. A great writer, lady Murasaki Shikibu, around the 1000's she composed the worlds first full-length novel. It illustrates the story of a prince named Genji and his adventure for love.
During this period, the Fujiwara's served as an emperor. Soon the the Fujiwaras were challenged by private armies.
the 2nd link is a picture of Heian Art.
Japans Geography consist of many islands and mountains. With these factors it is very hard to farm. Japan is also located near several tectonic plates their are frequent earthquakes and volcano eruptions. Japans most active volcano and tallest mountain is Mt.Fuji.
http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/... Detailed Summary of Japans Geography
Brief Summary of Japan
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/mt-fuji Video of Mt. Fuji.
The Mongols 's
Culturally the Mongols did nothing. So why are they so important?
Only civilization that had no empire, city or infrusctructure.
The Mongols are famous in history because they fight for a cause and destroy anyone willing.
The largest empire in history stretched from Poland to China covering 33,000,000 km²(12,741,371 sq mi). With Strong Leadership and Clever military tactics the Mongols were able to destroy their enemies quickly.
Temujin or Genghis Khan set out when he was young to the unite the steppes of other Mongolian countries. As a young boy, Temunjin lived in the steepes of Asia. Their was not an abdudant amount of resources where he lived so the clan he lived with focused on animal husbandry and hunting. With this they had practice with dealing with horses. Soon Temunjin came into power and rallied the mongols to create his vast empire.
Created a single economic and epidemiological world system. 13.8 million. Mongols were pretty brutal in dealing with other empires. After Genghis Khan dies he soon gives his empires to his 4 sons. Fro the steppes of eastern Asia. Temujin means universal ruller born 1167 orphanned at 10 Mastered the art of stepepe diplomacy united mongol tribes into a single confderation 1206 made chinggis Khan. Great horseman and archers gurts yers. large quickly moving armies cutting edge weapons. They put fear into the heart of the their enemies. Strong Equestrians and Archers were oriented around extreme mobility They carried their houses with them drank their own horse's blood to stay alive and could travel up to 62 miles per day Had Chinese silk underwear, provided way of warmth for back packers.
Mongols were successful in taking over most countries but they failed to take over these countries: Japan, Vietnam, India and Eastern European Countries.
The year 1260 is when we Kublai Khan becomes the leader of the Mongols. Although he only ruled the Khanate of the Great Khan. When the last ruler of the song dynasty was defeated Kublai Khan started the Yuan Dynasty and declared himself ruler. Kublai knowing that the Chinese were distasteful of Mongolian Culture. Kublai Khan decided to adopt Chinese Culture. Although Kublai Khan adopted Chinese cultures he distrusted in them and was harsh on the Chinese. The Mongols used the Chinese to build and extend roads and the grand canal. Not only did Kublai Khan expand the roads but he also expanded the trade among other civilizations.
Fall of the Yuan Dynasty
With many military defeats the Yuan Empire and large amounts of money spent on public works. The Yuan empire began to crumble. The empire finally disintegrated.
http://www.allempires.com/article/?q=The_Mongol_Em... link to the entire history of the Mongols.
Like I said before the Mongols geography was made of steeples. With many mountains and plateaus it was very hard to farm and find resources.
Even though I am not covering all of China. I am covering some dynasties in China such as the Sui, Tang and Song.
Sui dynasty was the dynasty that built the grand canal. The grand canal combined northern China and southern China. It stretched over 1000 miles across China. Although with building this canal many laborers die during the construction of this monument and
Out of all the rulers in China this was the only dynasty to have a women as emperor. Dynasty was ruled from 618-907. Under Tang Rule China experienced a golden age. The achievements they did included building a government similar to the Sui government. The Tang dynasty had 2 capitals. Their main capital was Chang'an and the second capital was Luoyang. They also established taking tests for government positions and a code that Korea and Japan based in their civilization.
Much of territory expansion happened under Taizong who ruled from 626-649. Taizong asked the advice of other member in the government instead just leading on his stances. With Military conquests and building of schools to prepare for exams. Taizong was admired as a great ruler. When Taizong had died, Wu Zhao became emperor herself. She was overthrown in 705 for being such a harsh ruler. Xuanzong took over and from 712-756 the empire flourished. The Tang empire soon ended in 907 when a powerful military general killed the emperor.
Under the Song Dynasty, China became a technological advanced civilization. Enlarging the government bureaucracy they soon made the civil service examination test very difficult to pass. Those who did pass this test soon became scholar-elites.
Not only did the Song empire have government expansion but the arts and technology made advances in Chinese society. 2 famous poets came around this time, Du Fu and Li Bo. Du Fu wrote more depressing and philosophical poems while Li Bo wrote about happiness and nature.
List of Hundreds of Poems on this site http://www.chinese-poems.com/du.html.
Chinese Art also made advances as well. During this period many artisans created exquisite objects from clay. These figures often depicted military of entertainment. A material that came out of this society was called porcelain. It was usually glazed in white black or pale green glazes.
In the Song Dynasty this is where gunpowder came from. It was first used as a form of entertainment with fireworks but other civilizations then turned it into a weapon. A major technological advance in China was the magnetic compass. With the compass seaman could find their way easily and their chance of being lost was slim. With inventing paper they also invented woodblock printing. Where they could be reused to create other copies of texts. Another major invention would be paper money for centuries the Chinese have been using coin money instead of paper money.
With new improvements in agriculture and irrigation systems improving. Food production began to improve along with the population growing up 100 million people. Along with agriculture trade also expanded. Improvements in roads and canals made it easier for trade along with that foreign trade also increased. Chinese society we soon saw the silk road connecting the western world and the eastern world together. With all of these advancements Chinese cities began to populate and become full of many people such as a million or more.
With all of these improvements Chinese Society began to change. The gentry class deveeloped, this class included scholar officials and leading landowners. In the past though the Chinese were peasents. Chinese Women also changed physically . They began the practice of binding feet to make them smaller. This was a very painful process.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-m3yagIowG6M/Ughs_szugEI/AAAAAAAAAd8/opXNb2u_vdQ/s640/foot_binding_chinese_07.jpg image of Chinese foot.
The first people to settle in the Korean Peninsula were nomads. Influenced by Chinese culture, the Koreans began to develop their own culture. In the Han Dynasty, China defeated the Koreans in 108 BC. After being captured Koreans began to convert to Confucius thinking as well as politics writing and agricultural methods. Not only Confucius but Buddhist missionaries also spread their religion.
After the decline of the Han Dynasty, three rival kingdoms gained control of Korea. By 668 the rulers of of one of these kingdoms, Silla allied with China conquering the other two kingdoms. They soon switched sides and supported Korea in driving out the Chinese soon silla had ruled all of Korea by 670. Under his reign Silla formed a central government and bureaucracy based on the tang model of of government.
silla kingdom weakened 935
rebels defeated it and founded the koryo dynasty this dynasty lasted until 1392. WIth in the koryo dynasty they adopted a civil service examination system similar to china. In Korea through only nobles could take tests and government positions were inherited Korean society was divided between\en the rulers and the citizens With this period happening Korean culture (thrived) and Korean artisans created pottery covered with a blue-green glaze called celadon celadon pottery rivaled song porcelain in beauty and was highly prized. Carved 80000 wooden blocks to print Buddhist text Koreans later improved processors by creating metal movable type
By this time in the 1200's the Mongol invaded China and forced citizens to serve in the military. When the yuan dynasty weakened Koreans rebelled. In 1392 a Korean general founded a new dynasty which ruled until 1910.
http://koreanhistory.info/Koryo.htm ( more info on the Koryo Dynasty)
South East Asia
Many people today do not know much about Southeast Asia.
During the AD 840s a people called the Burmans founded the kingdom of Pagan(puh-GAHN). This kingdom was close to the Irrawaddy River valley a fertile farming valley. The kingdom of Pagan began to expand with the king Anawrahta ruling from 1044 to 1077. The surrounding areas began to come under his rule providing ports and trade the kingdom then prospered. The rulers of the Pagan kingdom then became Theravada Buddhist soon making Pagan the center of learning Buddhism. Beginning in the late 1200's with the accession of mongols coming to power, the mongols demanded tribute from the Pagan empire. The Pagan furious at this demand attacked the Mongols but were defeated and ended up paying tribute to the Mongols. Soon their civilization vanished.
In what is now considered Cambodia by the early 800's the Khmer empire vanquished other tribes around them to build a great empire. Between 850 and 1220 the Khmer empire reached its height controlling much of Southeast Asia. With an Indian influence the Khmer empire built great Buddhist and Hindu monuments and buildings. One of these opus maxis was Angkor Wat. Angkor Wat, built in the 1100's, consists of walls surrounding a central temple with towers. Many carvings of Hindu story's and beliefs cover many of the walls. In the temple the highest tower rises over 200 feet and might have been used as an astronomical observatory. For 400 years the Khmer empire entered a golden age until costly buildings projects and invader destroying the empire.
During 750-850, many trading kingdom began to flourish with reliance on agriculture and trade for their survival. They as many other civilizations adopted Buddhism. One of the trading kingdoms Sailendra flourished and even build Borobudur the most famous Sailendra achievement.
On the Island of Sumatra the affluent Srivijaya Empire thrived during the 600's-1200's. At the height of the empire it extended its borders to the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Many achievements included building a school for the Buddhist students. Even though the empire survived when it was attacked in 1025. Other kingdoms came under conquest by the Muslim Kingdoms. Ending the Srivijaya Empire.
The greatest factor influencing Vietnam would be Chinese culture. With the Han Dynasty conquering Vietnam. The Vietnamese adopted Chinese hairstyle, language, clothing, government and religion. Along with Chinese religion such as Daoism and Confucianism. The Vietnamese adopted Buddhism. With being under Chinese rule though, the Vietnamese preserved to keep their beliefs together.
Vietnam gained their independence in 39 AD when sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi raised an army and drove the Chinese out of Vietnam for a certain amount of time. The Chinese soon regained control of Vietnam and the sisters then commited suicide by drowing them. 900 years later the Vietnamese gained their independence. In the 1200's the Mongols tried to invade Vietnam. The Vietnamese still remained a kingdom.
Geography of Vietnam
Southeast Asia is usually divided into to 2 parts the mainland area and the peninsulas. On the mainland several major rivers flow south. Waterways provided the early people in the area with their main sources of food and travel.