1960 Project

Shelby Soule

We Must Meet Violence with Nonviolence

The quote by Martin Luther King Jr; We must meet violence with nonviolence was said during the Civil Rights time. It has a meaning to it but not a very big one. What Martin Luther King Jr. was trying to say in the quote is that you must meet the forces of hate with power of love.

John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy was elected the 35th President of the United States. During Vietnam, Kennedy made a speech that he would continue the policy of the former President, Eisenhower and support the government of Diem in South Vietnam. Also during the Kennedy's presidency, the "Stragic Hamlet" program was introduced. It failed badly and destroyed hundreds of years of villages in South Vietnam.

We didn't Start the Fire

We didn't start the fire by Billy Joel was one of the hottest songs in 1989. Billy's list of the major historical events of his lie provides a lesson plan with a melody, a scavenger hunt for the post-war era.


Better Dead than Red is a Cold-war slogan claiming that the prospect of nuclear war is preferable to that of a comunist society.

California Dreamin'

The song California Dreamin' by the Mamas and the Papas was served as a metaphor as a restless and idealistic generation of the young people going to California. Many joined political movements and others sought alternative lifestyles. Many moved to California.

One Down, Eight to go

One Down, Eight to go is a saying from the Little Rock Nine. One of the nine African American students was expelled for dumping a bowl of soup on a classmate's head. The 8 remaining students the next day were greeted with a sign saying "One down... eight to go"

U2 Spy Plane

The U2 Spy Plane was used in the Cold-war. The plane is a major part of the war because the USSR shot down an American U2 Spy Plane in Soviet air space and captured its pilot. The U2 Spy Plane incident caused tensions between the U.S and the Soviets during the Cold War.


The M16 was the standard weapon for the U.S Army during the Vietnam War. This was an upgraded version from the M14 used. The M16 had the capability of semi or fully automatic fire control. option. This weapon may have thought to be an advantage as to control somewhat the amount of ammunition discharging based on combat conditions.

Agent Orange

Agent Orange was a powerful mixture of chemical defoliants used by U.S military forces during the Vietnam War to eliminate forest cover for the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, as well as crops that might be used to feed them. This deadly mixture can cause serious health issues including tumors, birth defects, rashes, psychological symptoms and cancer.


For years after Worl WarII, the United States and the Soviet Union had been trying to perfect a long range missile capable of carrying nuclear warheads, they call it Intercontinental ballistic missile or ICBM.  The Soviet Union announced that they successfully tested an ICBM that was capable of being fired into any part of the world. That announcement caused great concern in the U.S, and started a national debate over the "missile gap" betwenn American and Russia.


Napalm is a mixture of plastic polystryrene, hydrocarbon benzene, and gasoline. This mixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to almost anything and burns. Napalm was first used in flamethrowers for the U.S troops. Later, the U.S started dropping napalm bombs. Air raids that used napalm bombs could destroy 2,500 square yards with one bomb. During Vietnam, more than 8 million napalm bombs were dropped.


Hydrogen Bombs

The United States detobated the world's first thermonuclear weapon, the hydrogen bomb. The test gave the United States a short-lived advantage in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. The hydrogen bomb is about 1,000 times more powerful conventional nuclear devices in 1949.

The Bell UH-1 Iroquois, commonly known as the "Huey" was a multipurpose utility helicopter famous during the Vietnam War. Huey was used primarily to transport troops, or medical evacuations, cargo transport, and aerial attack. Huey's have been used in firefighting missions, humanitarian aid efforts, research operations, and search and rescue duties.

Booby Traps

Booby traps were used as by the Viet Cong as "non-explosive land mines". They still injured the victim and added to the stress of the war. Americans not only had to be on the lookout for non-uniformed North Vietnamese soldiers and Viet Cong, but they had to worry that with each step they took, they may end up in a hole with poisoned spikes.


In 1949, the prospect of the further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.


The MiG 17 was used in Vietnam, as well as MiG 19's. The greatesr jet to serve North Vietnam was the MiG 21. When the MiG 21 arrived, it was one of the most advanced fighters around. Most Vietnamese pilots became aces while flying it. The MiG posed losts of threats and led to the creation of the 'Top Gun' and 'Red Flag' flying schools in the U.S.

Children's March

The Children's March added a new dynamic to the struggle in Birmingham and was a major factor in the success of the campaign. More than a thouand African American students skipped their classes and gathered at Sixth Street Baptist Church to march to downtown Birmingham. Hundreds were arrested and carried off to jail in paddy wagons and school buses. The next day, hundreds of more young people gathered for another march, Commissioner Bull Connor directed the local police and fire department to blasted by high-pressure fire hoses.

Packing the Jails

On May 2, children gathered in Kelly Ingram Park. Many were arrested and placed in police vans. So many people were protesting, the police ran out of police vans and started shoving people into school buses.


At the heart of the Civil Rights Movements in the 1950's was the use of nonviolence protest including sit ins. The students planned several organizations to fight for Civil Rights.


As the Civil Rights Movement was unfolding across the U.S in1963, the entire nation had its eyes on climatic events taking place in Southern cities like Birmingham. However, there was a difference between how the national press covered the events in Birmingham and how Birmingham's papers covered their own city.

Justice in the Courts

In 1964, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act. This law banned discriminationof all kinds based on race, color, religion, or natonal origin. Also, this law provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation. This was a huge turning point in history.

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