Ancient Egypt

By Jordan Oliver

A picture of the Sphinx and a Pyramid.

Geography

Ancient Egypt was a vast & dry place for the most part. However, the Nile River flowed through it from South to North. To the North of Ancient Egypt, it was bordered the Mediterranean Sea; which was the jackpot for fish and other sea creatures.

The Nile River Valley provided natural irrigation & fertilization for the Egyptians. Because of this, the soil was enriched when the Nile River overflowed, which also allowed them to farm.

There were two lands labeled in Egypt. The "black land" and the "red land". The "black land" is the territory around the Nile River. They used this land for raising crops since the soil was super rich from the overflowing. They used this land for the majority of their food supply.

The "red land" is the hot, dry and empty desert that bordered Egypt on two sides. You may think that the Egyptians didn't use this part of land for much, but they did. The "red land" allowed them to be provided with precious metals and semi-precious stones.

Stable Food Supply

Peasants supplied the food for the Egyptians. They planted seeds to grow, as in wheat, barley, grain, onions, cucumbers, peas, lentils, papyrus, and garlic. Peasants prepared the onions, cucumbers, and also the fish for the wealthy.

Religion

The Egyptians had temples for the Egyptian Gods. They made statues and had holy pools in order to honor them. Because of their beliefs in the Gods, when a person passed on, the Egyptians wrapped the dead body in linen and placed it in a tomb along with bread & other daily objects they had. The reason they made mummies was because they had the belief that a spirit lives on, even after the body dies.

Social Structure

The least important on the pyramid were the peasants. This section includes both the farmers and the slaves. The next in line were the artisans, also called the craftsmen. They made sculptures and other artsy objects in Ancient Egypt. After the artisans were the scribes and the military men. The scribes wrote everything in Ancient Egypt. The Nobles and Priests come afterwards. After the Priests and Nobles, is the government officials & viziers.The viziers were the head of the military system. Last is the pharaoh. The Pharaoh rules all of Egypt.

The Arts

The artisans make all the art in Egypt. They are highly-skilled people that are ranked underneath the scribes that construct objects. They can be carpenters, jewelers, metal workers, leather workers, painters, potters, sculptors, and also weavers.

System of Goverment

The government officials helped the Pharaoh. They are the most important people besides the Pharaoh in Egypt. They had pyramids, sphynx, and temples for them.

Hatsheput was the most powerful female pharaoh. She ruled Ancient Egypt for 22 years!

Ramses II was the greatest pharaoh of all of Ancient Egypt. He helped his dad in military work and then when pharaoh, he fought against many & secured Egypt from attackers. He died at the age of 90, which means he ruled Egypt for 65 years.

Advances in Technology

The Egyptians grew reeds, which were soon after turned into baskets and rooves for huts. They also grew papyrus, which was made into a rope and paper. They also were the first ever to use paper & pens. They also had their whole system of writing formed.

Written Language

The Egyptian's form of writing was called Hieroglyphic writing. They used small symbols, called hieroglyphs to write. The scribes mainly wrote everything. Some of them worked for the government while others worked for priests and nobles. However, only men were allowed to work as scribes. Woman could not.

The scribes wrote on paper that was made out of papyrus and they used pens that were made out of reed(bamboo rods). Later on, scientists and historians compared their 3 types of writing to eventually decode the Hieroglyphic language.

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