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2 years ago
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2 years ago
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Диета за спортисти

диета за спортистиАко спортувате и спортът е наистина важен за вас, то организмът ви се нуждае от "правилна" храна, за да ви осигури максималнен резултат и за да ви възнагради за усилията.

Тренировките на гладен стомах могат да ви накарат да се почувствате немощни, но пък работата на пълен стомах може да ви причини стомашни разстройства и неудобства.
Идеално е състоянието, при което преди тренировка сте хапнали лека закуска включваща няколко сушени плодове или банан, или малка кофичка кисело мляко, или няколко пресни плода, или ядки, които ще предотвратят неприятните усещания на празния или претъпкания стомах и ще ви спестят проблемите със стомаха и червата. След като приключите с работата е време да осигурите на тялото си необходимите калории, които по-късно ще бъдат стопени.

Ако тренировката продължи 30 и повече минути, организмът ви ще има нужда от въглехидрати, с които да възстанови запасите си от гликоген (гориво на основата на въглехидрати, което се складира в мускулите и черния дроб). Опитайте се да си изградите навик, след тренировка да правите лека закуска, включваща няколко пресни или сушени плода, защоте те съдържат фруктоза (въглехидрат), съчетани с чаша прясно мляко. Препоръчително е да се консумира по 1 г въглехидрати на 1 кг телесна маса. Като правило, 10 г въглехидрати се съдържат в 25 г сушени кайсии, 20 г сушени смокини, 1 банан (95 г), 190 мл обезмаслено прясно мляко.

Спортистите трябва да набавят на организма си повече протеини. Въпреки, че това изискване важи в по-голяма степен за "сериозните спортисти", отколкото за хората, водещи заседнал начин на живот, препоръчително е да се консумира по 1,5-1,8 г протеини на 1 кг телесна маса. Не прибягвайте към протеинови добавки и прахове - много по-добре е да си ги набявате чрез естествените храни.

Пиенето на вода (минерална, пречистена) е един от основните аспекти за добрата работа на тялото, защото по време на тренировка тялото губи голямо количество течности и дехидратирането на организма затруднява извършването на физическо натоварване. Добре е по време на тренировка да пиете вода в малки количества. За да прецените от колко вода се нуждае вашето тяло, изтеглете се преди и след тренировката. След това имайте предвид, че организмът ви се нуждае от 1-1,5 литра вода на "стопен" килограм. Това означава, че се тялото ви се нуждае от 2,0-2,5 литра вода на ден.

Много популярни са т.нар. "спортни напитки". Но вие няма да се нуждаете от тях, ако количеството и качеството на приеманата от вас храна отговаря на потребностите на тялото ви, т.е. ако се храните добре. Но ако сте сериозни спортисти тези напитки (обикновено съдържат 6 г въглехидрати на 100 г течност) могат да бъдат алтернатива на водата, защото съдържащите се в тях сол и захар способстват за по-бързо приспособяване на тялото към неговия баланс от течности, както и ще помогнат за набавянето на така нужния гликоген. Но не консумирайте подобни напитки, съдържащи повече от 10 г въглехидрати на 100 мл течност, защото те ще дехидратират тялото ви още повече, така както кока колата и напитките, съдържащи кофеин.

Интензивните тренировки увеличават производството на свободни радикали в тялото, което от своя страна увеличава риска от вирусни заболявания и настинки. В този случай е необходимо да вземате добавки, които противодействат на свободните радикали, но трябва да се уверите, че храната, която консумирате е богата на витамин С (портокали, лимони, киви) и витамин Е (ядки, семена и растителни масла). Обърнете внимание и на храните съдържащи бета каротин (повечето плодове и зеленчуци, особено с червен и оранжев цвят) и селений (ядки и семена). Похапването на плодове, ядки и семена преди и след тренировките ще ви помогне да се чувствате и да изглеждате прекрасно!!

2 years ago
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2 years ago
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Daily training diet requirements

The basic training diet should be sufficient to:
provide enough energy and nutrients to meet the demands of training and exercise
enhance adaptation and recovery between training sessions
include a wide variety of foods like wholegrain breads and cereals, vegetables (particularly leafy green varieties), fruit, lean meat and low-fat dairy products to enhance long term nutrition habits and behaviours
enable the athlete to achieve optimal body weight and body fat levels for performance
provide adequate fluids to ensure maximum hydration before, during and after exercise
promote the short and long-term health of athletes.
The athlete’s diet

An athlete’s diet should be similar to that recommended for the general public, with energy intake divided into:
more than 55 per cent from carbohydrates
about 12 to 15 per cent from protein
less than 30 per cent from fat.
Athletes who exercise strenuously for more than 60 to 90 minutes a day may need to increase the amount of energy they get from carbohydrates to between 65 and 70 per cent.

More recent advice also provides guidelines for carbohydrate and protein based on grams per kilogram (g/kg) of body weight. The current recommendations for fat intake are for most athletes to follow similar recommendations to those given for the general community, with the preference for fats coming from olive oils, nuts, avocado, nuts and seeds. Athletes should also aim to minimise intake of high-fat foods such as biscuits, cakes, pastries, chips and fried foods.

Carbohydrates and exercise

During digestion, all carbohydrates are broken down into sugar (glucose), which is the body’s primary energy source. Glucose can be converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscle tissue. It can then be used as a key energy source during exercise to fuel exercising muscle tissue and other body systems. Athletes can increase their stores of glycogen by regularly eating high-carbohydrate foods.

If carbohydrate in the diet is restricted, a person’s ability to exercise is compromised because there is not enough glycogen kept in storage to fuel the body. This can result in a loss of protein (muscle) tissue, because the body will start to break down muscle tissue to meet its energy needs, and may increase the risk of infections and illness.

Carbohydrates are essential for fuel and recovery

Current recommendations for carbohydrate requirements vary depending on the duration, frequency and intensity of exercise. Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like wholegrain breads and cereals, should form the basis of the athlete’s diet. More refined carbohydrate foods (such as white bread, jams and lollies) are useful to boost the total intake of carbohydrate, particularly for very active people.

Athletes are advised to adjust the amount of carbohydrate they consume for fuelling and recovery to suit their exercise level. For example:
Light intensity exercise (30 mins/day) 3–5 g/kg/day
Moderate intensity exercise (60 mins/day) 5–7 g/kg/day
Endurance exercise (1–3 hrs/day) 6–10 g/kg/day
Extreme endurance exercise (more than 4 hrs/day) 8–12 g/kg/day

Sporting performance and glycaemic index

The glycaemic index (GI) ranks food and fluids by how ‘carbohydrate-rich’ they are and how quickly they affect the body’s blood sugar levels. The GI has become of increasing interest to athletes in the area of sports nutrition.

More research is required to confirm the best recommendations for sports nutrition. However, there is a suggestion that low GI foods may be useful before exercise to provide a more sustained energy release.

Moderate to high GI foods and fluids may be the most beneficial during exercise and in the early recovery period. However, it is important to remember the type and timing of food eaten should be tailored to personal preferences and to maximise the performance of the particular sport in which the person is involved.

Pre-event meal

The pre-event meal is an important part of the athlete’s pre-exercise preparation. A high-carbohydrate meal three to four hours before exercise is thought to have a positive effect on performance. A small snack one to two hours before exercise may also benefit performance.

Some people may experience a negative response to eating close to exercise. A meal high in fat or protein is likely to increase the risk of digestive discomfort. It is recommended that meals just before exercise should be high in carbohydrates and known not to cause gastrointestinal upset.

Examples of appropriate pre-exercise meals and snacks include cereal and low-fat milk, toast/muffins/crumpets, fruit salad and yoghurt, pasta with tomato-based sauce, a low-fat breakfast or muesli bar, or low-fat creamed rice..

Eating during exercise

During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue. Current recommendations suggest 30-60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient, and can be in the form of lollies, sports gels, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread.

It is important to start your intake early in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period. It is also important to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices. For people exercising for more than four hours, up to 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour is recommended.

Eating after exercise

Rapid replacement of glycogen is important following exercise. Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first one to two hours after exercise. To top up glycogen stores after exercise, eat carbohydrates with a moderate to high GI in the first half hour or so after exercise. This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes.

Suitable choices to start refuelling include sports drinks, juices, cereal and low-fat milk, low-fat flavoured milk, sandwiches, pasta, muffin/crumpets, fruit and yoghurt.

Protein and sporting performance

Protein is an important part of a training diet and plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair. Protein needs are generally met by following a high-carbohydrate diet, because many foods, especially cereal-based foods, are a combination of carbohydrate and protein.

The amount of protein recommended for sporting people is only slightly higher than that recommended for the general public. For example:
General public and active people – the daily recommended amount of protein is 0.8–1.0 g/kg of body weight (a 60 kg person should eat around 45–60 g of protein daily).
Sports people involved in non-endurance events – people who exercise daily for 45–60 minutes should consume between 1.0–1.2 g/kg of body weight per day.
Sports people involved in endurance events and strength events – people who exercise for longer periods (more than one hour) or who are involved in strength exercise, such as weight lifting, should consume between 1.2–1.7 g/kg of protein of body mass.
Dietary surveys have found that most athletic groups comfortably reach and often exceed their protein requirements by consuming a high-energy diet. Despite this, protein and amino acids (the building blocks of protein) are popular nutritional supplements.

Amino acids and supplements in sporting performance

Many people believe that additional protein, or even specific amino acid supplements, will provide extra benefits for athletes involved in intense training. For most people, sufficient amounts of protein can be obtained from a healthy diet.

While more research is required, concerns associated with very high-protein diets include:
increased cost
a potential negative impact on kidney function in susceptible people
increased weight if protein choices are high in fat
a lack of other nutritious foods in the diet such as bread, cereal, fruit and vegetables due to a focus on protein foods.
Vitamin supplements

A well-planned and nutritionally adequate diet should meet an athlete’s vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency. There is no evidence that mega-doses of vitamins improve sporting performance.

Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is potentially dangerous and they should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional. Dietary imbalances should be adjusted by analysing and altering the diet, rather than by using a supplement or pill.

Water and sporting performance

Dehydration can impair athletic performance and, in extreme cases, may lead to collapse and even death. Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is very important. Don’t wait until you are thirsty. Fluid intake is particularly important for events lasting more than 60 minutes, of high intensity or in warm conditions.

Water is a suitable drink, but sports drinks may be required, especially in endurance events or warm climates. Sports drinks contain some sodium, which helps absorption. A sodium content of 30 mmol/L (millimoles per litre) appears suitable in sports nutrition.

Using salt tablets to combat muscle cramps is no longer advised. It is lack of water not sodium that affects the muscle tissue. Persistent muscle cramps might be due to zinc or magnesium deficiencies.

Where to get help
Your doctor
Dietitians Association of Australia Tel. 1800 812 942
Sports Dietitians Australia Tel. (03) 9926 1336
Things to remember
Good nutrition can enhance sporting performance.
A well-planned, nutritious diet should meet most of an athlete’s vitamin and mineral needs, and provide enough protein to promote muscle growth and repair.
Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like wholegrain breads and cereals, should form the basis of the diet.
Water is a great choice of fluid for athletes to help performance and prevent dehydration.
You might also be interested in:
Healthy eating tips.
Water - a vital nutrient.
Weight loss and carbohydrates.
Want to know more?
Go to More information for support groups, related links and references.

This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:
Deakin University - School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
(Logo links to further information)

Fact sheet currently being reviewed.
Last reviewed: October 2012
Content on this website is provided for education and information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional. Content has been prepared for Victorian residents and wider Australian audiences, and was accurate at the time of publication. Readers should note that, over time, currency and completeness of the information may change. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions.

2 years ago
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