Domains & Kingdoms
Created by: Leah B. and Anjel M.

         Have you ever thought about where fresh fruits and veggies lie in a domain? Ever thought about where the birds, butterflies, and even wasps go in terms of their domain? Maybe YOU haven't, but scientists do. In fact, they classify not only where all of these living things belong, but also find the similarities in terms of structures, functions, and relationships to other organisms. This term is called taxonomy.
         There are three domains, Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (also known as eukaryote). Out of these three domains, only one of them includes ALL eukaryotic cells, this is known as Domain Eukarya. The other two domains are prokaryotes, unlike Domain Eukarya, they have nuclei. Let's talk more about these three domains!
       To begin with, let's start with Domain Eubacteria. The meaning of this domain is: 'true bacteria'. Remember, 'eu' means true! This domain is prokaryotic, it cannot live in extreme environments such as a hot or cold place. The organism are unicellular organisms. Most bacteria consume their own food (heterotrophs), while few bacteria make their own food (autotrophs). Did you know that bacterium reproduce ASEXUALLY? This means that they only need one organism to create an offspring. Us, humans, reproduce SEXUALLY, this means that we need two organisms to create an offspring.
              FIVE FUN FACTS!
-In your body, there is more eubacteria than there are people in the world!
-Most eubacteria are helpful, only few causes sickness and diseases!
-Some bacteria die if oxygen is present (opposite of humans)!
-If the bacteria has a flagella or cilia, that is what makes it move!
-Bacteria is what creates some of the foods you eat such as yogurt and cheese!


The next domain is the Archaea Domain! It is super cool because, unlike other organisms, it has a unique plasmid membrane! This domain is a specialized group of unicellular prokaryotes. They can live in EXTREME conditions such as thermophiles ( heat loving) and halophiles ( salt loving). It can be both, autotrophs and heterotrophs, however, they ONLY reproduce asexually.


The last, but not least domain is the Eukarya domain. Unlike the archaea and eubacteria domain,this domain has FOUR kingdoms. All eukaryotes go in this domain, probably because this is the only domain that has them. The organisms in this domain include animals, plants, fungi, and protists! In case you didn't know, protists are single called organisms with a nucleus. Their structures re too simple too be known as plants or animals.



    Some of the kingdoms are Kingdom Eubacteria, Kingdom Archea, the Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms: Kingdoms Plantae, Protista, Animalia, and Fungi. Lets start with Kingdom Plantae, it has plants and are very complex. Plants are autotrophs, this means that they make their own food. They are multicellular and can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

      According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota. The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus. A domain is a type of bacteria that can be found somtimes.if you scratch your hair that bacteria that was in your hair is now in your rememeber that if u scratch your hair wash your hands.  

    `From around the mid-1970s onwards, there was an increasing emphasis on comparisons of genes on the molecular level (initially ribosomal RNA genes) as the primary factor in classification; genetic similarity was stressed over outward appearances and behavior. Taxonomic ranks, including kingdoms, were to be groups of organisms with a common ancestor, whether monophyletic (all descendants of a common ancestor) or paraphyletic (only some descendants of a common ancestor). Based on such RNA studies, Carl Woese, thought life could be divided into three large divisions and referred to them as the "three primary kingdom" model or "urkingdom" model. In 1990, the name "domain" was proposed for the highest rank.Woese divided the prokaryotes (previously classiftKingdomMonera) into two groups, called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria or Archstressing that there was as much genetic difference between these two groups as between either of them and all eukaryotes.
    According to genetic data, although eukaryote groups such as plants, fungi, and animals may look different, they are more closely related to each other than they are to either the Eubacteria or Archaea. It was also found that the eukaryotes are more closely related to the Archaea than they are to the Eubacteria. Although the primacy of the Eubacteria-Archaea divide has been questioned, it has been upheld by subsequent research.There is no consensus on how many kingdoms exist in the classification scheme proposed by Worse.That is the basic stuff abot the kingdoms.