Supreme Court Cases
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)- Madison refused to deliver Marbury's commission so Marbury's went to court. Marbury did not receive his commission because the court said it was unspcinstitutional. Let to judicial review being established.
Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)- Peck sold Fletcher land in Yazoo illegally. Fletcher used because the land was really bad. The state (Georgia) legislative repealed it but then the Supreme Court said state legislature can't do that because in the constitution it says that legally binding contracts can't be repealed. Shows that property is protected and court can invalidate state laws. Protected contracts.
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)- Marykand tried to close one of the branches of the bank by taxing notes. Court ruled that the tax was unconstitutional because Marykand was specifically targeting the Bank of the US. Showed that congress has the power to say that laws are unconstitutional and states didn't have the power to tax the national governemnt.
Dartmouth vs. Woodward (1819)- Dartmouth college was granted a charter by the King and New Hampshire legislature wanted to change that. The court said the charter must stand because it was a contract and the constitution protected contracts against state encroachments. Safeguarded businesses from domination by state governments (even when they sometimes needed to be controlled).
Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)- Cohens sold lottery tickets illegally in Virginia. He was convicted of being guilty by the state and the Supreme Court agreed and fined him $100. Because article 3 section 2 said Supreme Court has jurisdiction over all cases. This asserted the right of the Supreme Court to review state courts decisions.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)- Ogden has a monopoly over a canal, Gibbons wants to travel there, Ogden said he can't, so Gibbons goes to court. Gibbons won. Won because states can't control commerce between two states. Shows that a federal government can override a state-given monopoly. **All about commerce.
Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)- Georgia did not want people (immigrants like Worcester) to enter their star and live in certain areas. Court said that they can't do this. So Worcester was allowed into the state. Reason: because only the federal government can regulate immigration. They were entitled to protection from the state government. Affirms the right of the people to be free from the authority of the state government.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt (1842)- The case was the first judgement in the u.s. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions (so they are constitutional) and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members. Legalized the American labor union movement. Chief Justice: Lemuel Shaw.
Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857)- Dred Scott was a slave and his owner and him moved to a free state so Scott sued for his freedom. The Court held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore could not sue. Also that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)- The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal."