Ancient Egypt / Sophia Schiavo
How the people of Ancient Egypt survived
Stable Food Supply
To keep a stable food supply was tricky, they needed climate with mild weather and regular mild weather and regular rain is good for the plant life and crops. They got water from rivers and lakes also inland seas. To grow crops farmers perferrred plains and valleys. The nile river region included fish, ducks, geese, hippos, crocodiles, giraffes, and ostriches. In the north, wide plains were watered by annual flooding. They caught fish from river and seas. Rich soils and coastal plains were good for crops. Rocky lands made farming very difficult.
Religion in Egypt was different from how religion is now. They did not have presidents, they had pharaohs. But it was kinda like a government. Priests advised Pharaohs, for example King Tut was only 9 when he became a Pharaoh, he was so young he didn't know what was right from wrong, so high priests advised young pharaohs like King Tut. The temple priests were in charge of temples. Other priests handled more common concerns. When someone dies they wrap them in cloth, even the poor Egyptians were wrapped in cloth. They buried people with loaves of bread and any other item they would need in the after life. They also bury people with dead cats so they can have pets in the after life. The religion beliefs were important because they believed in after life and after life was very important to them. The lavish banquets were enjoyed by wealthy Egyptians. They ate duck,goose,pigeon,quail,antelope,sheep and goat.
The social structure is kinda like a pyramid, going from the bottom to the top it starts with peasants, artisans, scribes, priests, government officials, then finally Pharaohs. Peasants worked on land. Peasants were the ones that provided Egyptians with a stable food supply. Artisans are sculptures, stone carvers, and are highly skilled. Noble families and Pharaohs are on the same level of social class. Peasants were most populated on the pyramid. The reasons peasants were the most populated because not much people that were as wealthy as Pharaohs. The more to the top you are the more wealthy you are. The women of high social class enjoy banquets.
In Egypt arts is not drawing or anything like we do in school. There were artisans that made beautiful objects. Workers in the artisan class included, carpenters, jewelers, leather workers, metal workers, painters, potters, sculptors, and weavers. Most artisans were men, the men produced the statues and engravings. The only job women do is weave. To be a stone carver you had to give up time, if you wanted to be a stone carver you had to give up time. Stone carving is very time consuming and demanding. People that were artisans their houses were only 10 yards long! There were woman that were musicians, acrobats, and dancers. They played flutes, harps, rattles, and lutes. The picture below shows a sculpture that an artisan made.
System of government
The people of Egypt enjoyed three long periods of stability and unity under the rules of Pharaohs. Historians called these periods the old kingdom, Middle kingdom, New kingdom. Pharaohs set up a strong central government. Pyramids took about 20 years to complete. Senusret was the second pharaoh. He ruled from 1971 B.C.E. to 1926 B.C.E. Hatshepsut was the 5th pharaoh. She was most powerful pharaoh of the egyptian empire.
Advances in Technology
There is a bunch of differences between the technology now and the technology in egypt. Like in egypt they had pyramids instead of houses. The pharaohs lived in palaces. There were simple machines, ramps, simple machines, ramps and levers. There were advancements in boat building math and writing. Papyrus sheets they use to write down religious text. Ship building was a big part because it would be easier to cross the nile river. Mathematics was important because they needed gyometry to build pyramids.
Egyptians used hieroglyphics to write. They also used egyptian arabic. Hieroglyphics could be written from left to right. In hieroglyphics there were no constants or vowels. It took years of education and practice to be able to do it. Limestone flake was used to practice hieroglyphics. Scribes used reed brushes dipped in ink. They made ink by grinding brightly colored minerals powder and mixing the powder with liquid.