Ancient Egypt
By Nariah Garcia

Stable Food Supply

In Ancient Egypt rivers, lakes, and inland seas provided water. The soil was rich and there was a lot of land space to grow crops for farmers. Farmers grew wheat, barley, papyrus, and other vegetables. Wheat and barley was used for making bread, and papyrus was used for making paper. The Nile region provided fish, duck, geese, crocodiles, giraffes, ostriches, and hippos. Most people only ate fish, duck, geese, and bread with vegetables. People ate fish from the Mediterranean Sea. They were able to survive because of their irrigation system.

Religion

Ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods, some of the important and most known gods are as Ra, Anubis, Osiris, and Horus. Each of them were shown with animal heads to represent their magical power. Ra had a falcon mask/hat with the sun on the top, he was the god of direction. Many Egyptians believed he created the world. Anubis had a jackal or wild dog head and he was the god of funeral and death. He painted on the walls of tombs to "protect the dead", he was believed to preserve Osiris or embalmed him. Osiris just statyed as a human, he was killed by his brother Seth becase he was jealous of his power he wanted to take over as king. Osiris's dead corpse was found by his wife and she "brought him back to life". He was the god of the underworld. When he died all the pharohs became Osiris when they died. Horus was shown also shown as a falcon and he was the god of the sky. (almost like Zeus in Greek Mythology.) He was the son of Osiris and Iris, he lost his eye fighting Seth after he killed his father. He was believed to give power to each pharoh.

Social Structure

The pharaoh is always at the top of the social structure pyramid because there is only one of him and he is the most important. Priests and Government officials are second to the top or under the pharaoh because they are also important but not as important as the pharaoh but there are more of them then the pharaoh so they are closer to the bottom then the pharaoh. Scribes, artisans, craftsmen, farmers, laborers, servants, and slaves are closer to the bottom cause there are many of them. Slaves are at the bottom because they are the least important and there are A LOT of them.

The Arts

Ancient Egyptians were not all work work work they also had fun and had creativity. They had sculptures, to paintings, and music. The old kingdom lasted for about five hundred years from 2586-2160 B.C. Most of their art comes from the tomb walls. The old kingdom was known for their 3D sculptures of king Zoser. The middle kingdom was known for their drawings of daily life and 3D sculptures. The New kingdom was known for their stone 3D sculptures. They painted, made sculptures of gold of pharaohs,and artisans crafted boats. Women were usually musicians and they played lutes.

Advances In Technology

Ancient Egyptians invented contraptions to help them live every day life easier. They invented a water wheel which gave them cleaner more purified water, they invented paper so scribes could write easier and so a document could be saved better and so it wasn't as heavy as rock. Egyptians invented perfume for women, pyramids to worship their gods in it. They also invented medicine so the sick didn't die of illness and they lived longer.

System Of Government

In ancient Egypt pharaohs were in charge, so they made the rules. Some of the pharaohs were more important then others such as; King Khufu, King Senuusret, King Hatsheput, and King Ramseses II. King Khufu was responsible for building the Great Pyramid, King Sensusret made a lot of famous religious architectural- The white chapel. Hatsheput was the first female pharaoh, her greatest achievement was her rise in power. Ramses II had over one hundred wives (he was not shy) he also had over one hundred children. At the age of ten he became the leader of the Egyptian army.

Written Language

When Egyptians had to communicate with one another besides speaking they needed to use some type of written language. They made this language that uses symbols to show what they are writing about, kind of like old Indian writing. People now call their writing hieroglyphics. When they wrote they used papyrus (check back t0 advances in technology for more info on papyrus) it was a plant but they made it into paper so they could write on it. But it was not like ordinary computer paper or anything it was like sand paper almost but you could write on it. Egyptians used either red or black ink when writing.

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