FISHING INDUSTRIES

LOCATION

IMPORTANCE OF FISHING TO CANADAS ECONOMY

Commercial fishing occurs on the east coast . Fishing takes place in ocean waters, inland lakes, and rivers, but the industry has declined as the number of fish has decreased. Only about 10,000Canadians had a commercial fishing liscense and another 10,000 were employed in fish processing production , Production from the east coast is higher than that from the west coast . which accounts for 0.2 percent of the GDP. Canada’s fish catch in 1997 was 1.03 million metric tons. About 80 percent of the catch is exported, which is just over 1 percent of the total value of goods exported. Canadian fish and seafood are sold in 100 different countries, but the primary markets are the United States (50 percent) and Japan {29 percent}. Cod, herring, crab, lobster, and scallops have been the most important exports from the Atlantic coast, and halibut and salmon from the Pacific coast. There is also a commercial freshwater fishery in Ontario, focused on Lake Erie. Commercial sport fishing industries have been developed throughout Canada.

The primary fishery output in Canada in 1995 is valued at 2.1 billion dollars $$.

Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries. It provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the world, but those who practice it as an industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions.

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.The commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or for use as raw material in other industrial processes.

A small number of species support the majority of the world’s fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species as well are fished in smaller numbers.

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT & CHALLENGES OF INDUSTRY

Environmental Impact and Challenges of Industry

1) Is this industry based on a renewable resource?

A renewable resource is defined as being a resource that can be replenished naturally. Canada's fishing industries are shown to be renewable resources since fish can be reproduce and maintain its population. However, this does not mean we will have an endless supply of fish for future generations to come. It is important that we harvest our supply of fish at a rate slower than they can recover, so we don't run into the situation of deficit. Unfortunately, we have been depleting our supply faster than they can be produced. Since the 1980's, the Canadian fishing industry has been in a state of crisis. For example, the Atlantic Northwest Cod fisheries are notable for shaping a foundation in the economic structure of Atlantic Canada. It was the biggest industry to be closed down in Canadian history, and left approximately 35,000 people unemployed over almost 400 coastal communities. This was the end result of not monitoring how much we were taking from the environment. We care still recovering to this day.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collapse_of_the_Atlantic_northwest_cod_fishery

2) Are there any environmental impacts this industry has? Describe what the industry can do to limit the effects.

When the issues of the fishing industry came into view of Canada's federal government, they reacted by limiting the amount of fish caught by fisheries in 1991. They also used a method known as “Sustainable Yield Management”, meaning to harvest a certain amount of fish without depleting the entire population. This is to ensure a steady rate of reproduction and management. Unfortunately, the catch allowed by the government appeared too high and must be lowered to encourage growth in population. In this case, sustainable yield management wasn’t enough, and we were still left to deal with a limited supply of fish. This industry has contributed to many environmental factors, and has been widely associated with pollution. Water pollution is a particular side effect of the fishing industry. This water pollution has forced more and more fish to change routes, resulting in a drastic decline of fish. With less wild fish being caught, more aquaculture is encouraged to help keep up the economic value before the fishing industry is depleted altogether. More aquaculture leads to even more pollution in a variety of ways such as runoff and emissions. Overfishing is an extremely serious problem with these industries especially. As consumers request more produce, fishing industries will provide, no matter what. The demand goes higher as does supply. Due to this supply and demand, overfishing has been a big side effect of fishing. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, over 70% of the world’s fish species are either fully exploited or depleted (estimate). As of 2011, our fish supply has been recovering, due to awareness and caution. It is extremely important to respect these limits and follow sanitary working conditions to maintain this industry for the sake of Atlantic Canada’s economy.

3) What issues does this industry face?

In the 1990’s, most of the fishery grounds in Atlantic Canada had collapsed and reached an all-time low. We have yet to recover. This has had a huge impact economically, socially, and environmentally over the course of almost 25 years. With less fish being caught and a growing demand, it is nearly impossible to keep up with such a limited supply. It is also extremely difficult to set a budget and to manage with a restrained amount of resources. As we can see, the fishing industry has many problematic issues that aren't only in our attention, but also to the world. Japan and Russia for example used to share the same area for their fishing, in Canada's east coast. With too many hands in the bowl, none was left for us. This was the result of not taking ownership. Socially, Atlantic Canada's community also rely on the fishing industry to keep their cities under control. The main problem, though stated above, is definitely overfishing which can lead to losing entire ecosystems and in return, weakening Canada's economy.

http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_cesd_201112_04_e_36032

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICE & QUESTION

Why we should sustain the fish population

All across the world communities are constancy fishing. When the first settlers came to Canada they found many fishes on the coast of Nova Scotia. These fishes were called cod fish. After a couple of years there were no more cod fish because the fishes were being over consumed. It is important to sustain the fish population so that we are not over consuming so much and that we let the fish population continue to grow. A couple of years ago cod fish almost got extended the government has a law that made it illegal to fish cod. Slowly fish are starting to appear in the coast of Nova Scotia. Sustaining the fish’s population is not only good for the fishes but it keeps the aquatic animals alive due to the food chain.

How we are managing the fish

In 1990 to 2002, British Columbia’s salmon catch fell back 66% 96,000 to 33,000 tonnes. Also 2009 8 million missing sockeye salmon in the B.C. this is because little progress has been made towards sustainable fisheries. Even though governments are trying to sustain the fishing population using fishing data that see the amount of fish that is being heaviest and also there are some laws like Coastal Fisheries Protection Act and the Atlantic Fisheries Restructuring Act. Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 was to manage Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks for the Coastal Fishers Act. These acts were created to sustain the population of the fish. There are many more acts that were in place and some of them had very little effect on sustainability.

Is this helping sustain the population of fish?

Many communities are still fishing in the forbidden boundaries and are fishing illegally and the results for managing the fish population is barley increasing. It increased by 1% over the time. But looking at the results from cod fish management we are seeing that cod fish are slowly started to return. If our government wanted to sustain the population of fish then we should have started a long time ago. We have being extracting huge amount of fish since the beginning of time.

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Hafsa ,Sakshi ,Mendy