Earth, Moon, and Sun
Earth in Space
How does Earth move in Space?
The Earth is drawn in by the Sun's gravitational pull, because the Sun has a greater mass than the Earth. But the Earth has enough forward motion to keep it from being pulled completely into the Sun. Because of those two factors, the Earth revolves around the Sun in a counterclockwise forward motion.
The Earth spins on its axis, an imaginary line that runs through the Earth. The Earth rotates West to East. Its spin causes night and day.
What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?
During our summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, but when it is winter, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun.
This causes its different seasons because one hemisphere of the Earth would be getting more sunlight, thus more heat, than the other during the seasons.
Gravity and Motion
What determines the strengths of the force of gravity between two objects?
The larger the mass of an object, the larger its gravitational pull. If one object is bigger than the other, the larger one would pull the smaller ones towards it, it also my move a little, depending the size of the other object.
What two factors combine to keep the Moon and Earth in orbit?
The Sun's gravitational pull on Earth and the Earth's forward motion combined makes it so that the earth wouldn't fling out into space, also so that it wouldn't be pulled in completely into the Sun.
Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
What causes the phases of the moon?
The "lit up" part of the Moon is actually it just reflecting the Sun's light. The different phases are caused by which part of the Moon is being hit by the Sun.
What are solar and lunar eclipses?
A solar eclipse is when the Moon is directly in front of the Sun, blocking our view of the Sun. A lunar eclipse is when the Earth is directly in front of the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon.
What causes tides?
The Moon, of course, has a gravitational pull, it's strong enough to pull the the water towards it, but it isn't strong enough to pull the water completely up to it, so the water goes back down.
What features are found on the Moon's surface?
There are many creators on the Moon's surface. They are caused by many asteroids crashing into the surface. The reason why most asteroids don't burn, then designate before they hit the Moon is because of it has a thinner atmosphere compared to Earth, so the asteroids don't burn up and fast.
What are some characteristics of the Moon?
The Moon's surface is covered with creators caused by meteorites. It is 3,476 kilometers in diameter and has 1/18 less the mass of Earth. It is 130 degrees Celsius during the day, and -180 degrees Celsius. The moon has no liquid water, but large patches of ice near its poles.
How did the Moon form?
About 4.5 billion years ago when all of the planets in our solar system, a planet sized object hit the side of the Earth. Material from the collision that was hit off of the Earth formed a ring around it. Soon, the material in the ring came together to form our Moon.