First Written Laws
Hammurabi's Code was the first set of written laws. These 282 laws dealt with everything to do with marriage, trade, loans, murder, etc. It was important that these were written, because everyone could see them. Most of these laws relied on a persons social class. You were punished less for committing a crime against a poor person, than against a richer person. This is crucial when it comes to being advanced, because there must be rules that everyone had to follow. This is one of many things that makes Mesopotamia an advanced civilization.
Invention of the Wheel
The invention of the wheel opened up many new ways to do things. Ancient Mesopotamians used the wheel to make different types of pottery, such as bowls, cups, etc. Ways of transportation dramatically changed because of the wheel. You could now ride in carts, pulled by animals. The plow also used wheels to farm. The wheel made life so much easier for Mesopotamians.
System of Writing
The first system of writing was called cuneiform. These were first written on clay tablets and were written with thin sticks called styluses. Mesopotamians used these to record history, write laws, and write epics. An epic is a story that tells about a hero and his adventures. Soon, people would start to write books. You can learn more about cuneiform with this link http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/cuneiform.html. This was the start of literature.