Mesopotamia means the land between the rivers. (Hippopotamus -- river horse -- contains the same word for river potam-). A body of water in some form or other is essential to life, so an area boasting of two rivers would be doubly blessed. The area on each side of these rivers was fertile, although the larger, general area was not. The ancient residents developed irrigation techniques to take advantage of their value, but very limited natural resource. Over time, irrigation methods changed the riverside landscape.
This is Mesopotomia. Mighty kings, who commanded large armies, had strong cities, great palaces, and magnificent royal tombs made. The kings were assisted by priests and well-trained scribes, who collected taxes, controlled irrigation projects, and took charge of laws governing city crafts and trade. Priests also served the gods in ziggurats (temples).
This is Hammurabi's Code."An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth."
This phrase, along with the idea of written laws, goes back to ancient Mesopotamian culture that prospered long before the Bible was written or the civilizations of the Greeks or Romans flowered.
"An eye for an eye ..." is a paraphrase of Hammurabi's Code, a collection of 282 laws inscribed on an upright stone pillar. The code was found by French archaeologists in 1901 while excavating the ancient city of Susa, which is in modern-day Iran. and this is know as Cuneaform.