Moon Phases

Waxing: the moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

Waning: the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon (so called because its illuminated area is decreasing)

Gibbous: seen with more than half but not all of the apparent disk illuminated

Crescent: part way between a half moon and a new moon, or between a newmoon and a half moon.

A Lunar Cycle is about 30 days long.


  • Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer who made a model of the universe and thought the Earth was in the middle.
  • We, on earth have seasons because the earth is tilted as is rotates. Every side of the earths surface through the phase in time that it faces either away or towards the sun will have a different temperature.
  • One topic of argument is why the earth is cold in the winters when in fact the earth is tilted towards the sun in the winter! This is because of the worlds axis. During the winter, the suns rays will hit the earth and spread out to a shallower point. In the summer, the suns rays hit the earth and do not spread as much- allowing more time to heat up an area of the earth.
  • A Lunar Eclipse is when the earth, sun and moon align in space. We do not observe a lunar #eclipse every month because the orbit of the earth and the moon are not in the same orbital place.
The Seasons on Earth
  • We have Day and Night because of the rotating earth. It takes earth 24 hours to complete a full turn. In this time, it allows every area of the world to have an equal period of light, and darkness
Night & Day

Equinox: the time or date twice each year at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length.

Solstice: the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.


  • Alfred Wegener was a German  a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. In his lifetime he was known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research.
  • Consurgent: something coming closer together, especially in characteristics
  • Divergent: tending to be different or develop in different directions
  • Transform Boundary: a transform fault or boundary fault is also known as a conservative plateboundary. These faults neither create or destroy the  lithosphere.
  • The Juan de Fuca plate is just off the coast of Washington

Rift Zone is a feature of some volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's bottom instead of from its summit.

Subduction Zone is the biggest smash-up on Earth, marking the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates, the pieces of crust that slowly move across the surface over time.

  • Convection Current in magma drive plate tectonics. The earths mantle has convection currents that are heated from the decay of elements in the earth creating magma. This explains earths rocky mantle.

The Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington are were formed by a flood which was contributed when a glacier lake melted. The feature shows in depth erosion of granite and metamorphic rock.


Rock Vocabulary

  • Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. (Grand Canyon)
  • Metamorphic rocks that have undergone transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural agencies. (Ongamira Valley)
  • Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. (Mt. Rushmore)
  • Stratification is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories.

If there are more rock layers, the rock tends to be older, since more sediment has been formed into the rock over time. The shape of rock layers too can estimate the age of land forms, since jagged rocks are much younger than flat thick rocks, due to erosion. This also explains how fossils can be found in older rock formations.

Formation of Rocks
  • How younger layers of rocks can get under older layers of rocks? Large geological events such as earth quakes, volcanoes etc. Events that split the earths crust can allow the newer rock soil to fall in with older rock
The Rock Cycle

Living Organisms have a special part in shaping land forms. Coral reefs are lined with limestone build up along with underground volcanoes. These types of things can alter the land form over time

The Rock Cycle Video: https://youtu.be/uAAeFB7Tv5A


What is a cell?

  • A cell in the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.

What is the difference between plant and animal cells?

  • The overall function of the cell is the same, there are some important differences between animal and plant cells. One difference is that plant cells have an organelle called chloroplast, animal cells do not. Another differnce is that animal cells do not have a cell wall.

Types of Cells

There are tons of different types of cells in your body. Lets investigate some of them:

1. Bone Cell

    There are two categories of bone cells. Osteoclasts are in the first category. They dissolve the bone. The other category is the osteoblast which consists of osteoblasts that form bone, osteocytes that help maintain bone, and cells that line the surface.

2. Muscle Cell

    Muscle cells are one of the top four tissue types. It provides movement and heat to other organs in the body.

3. Blood Cell

    Blood cells carry oxygen and nutrients to living cells. They are cells normally found circulating in the blood. Bone marrow makes the red blood cells.

1. Digestive System

  • The mouth breaks down the food
  • The food will then travel down the Esophagus down to the stomach
  • In the stomach, the food is churned and creates juices to prepare for digestion
  • The liver will produce bile and obtain any nutrients from the food, while the gallbladder stores the bile
  • Pancreas will produce enzyems to continte into the small intestine
  • The Large intestine can collect/absorb water from waste, and the rectum stores the waste until it exits the body
The Digestive System Diagram

2. The Circulatory System

Low oxygenated blood first travels through the Right Atrium and then to the right ventricle.It gets oxygenated by the lungs and travels back to the Left Atrium, the Left ventricle and finally through the Aorta. The oxygenated blood then travels through the entire body, and then when it has lost oxygen it repeats this process over.

The Circulatory System Diagram

3. The Respiratory System

Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is combined with oxygen as part of a energy making processes of the body. The lungs and respiratory system can allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while letting the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air to be breathed out.

The Respiratory System Diagram

A Paramecium is a single-celled freshwater animal that has a characteristic slipper like shape and is covered with cilia.

Paramecium Diagram


  • The Genotypes are G and g

          GG= All green

           gg= All yellow

          Gg= Green & Yellow

Adaptation: the action or process of adapting or being adapted. #rockinreveiw

Evolution: the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

Species: a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

Gene: a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Genetic: of or relating to genes or heredity.

Sexual Reproduction: the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types.

Asexual Reproduction: by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only.

Why offspring that result from sexual reproduction are likely to have more diverse characteristics than offspring that result from asexual reproduction?

  • Asexual parents can only inherite THEIR genes to the offspring.
  • On the other side, Sexual Reproduction parents are most liking not the same in feature wise, creating more diverse characteristics. Their genes mix and match.
Animal Classification

If there wasn't any diversity our population and animals would resemble this diagram below:



  • Decomposers are organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down the organic matter in the dead bodies of plants and animals.
  • Consumers are organisms of an ecological food chain that receive energy by consuming other organisms.
  • An Ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
  • Producers are organisms that can make their own energy through biochemical processes.
  • A Food Chain a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.
  • Biotic means of, relating to, or resulting from living things, especially in their ecological relations.
  • Abiotic physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms.
  • Adaption is a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.
  • Wetland

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