Pangaea: The Super-continent
- Plate Tectonics -
Pangaea was a supercontinent that existed approximately 300 million years ago and then began to break apart after about 100 million years. It was surrounded by a single ocean called 'Panthalassa'.
The basic idea behind plate tectonics is that there are eight major plates on the surface of the Earth and there are also lots of minor plates. The plates are like the skin of our planet. They constantly move around the Earth. This is only fractional, in terms, its a very small amount, merely centimeters each year.
Below is an accurate representation of plate tectonics:
Volcanoes: Did you know?
- The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.
- While we have some big volcanoes on Earth, the biggest known volcano in our solar system is actually, in fact, on Mars.
- There are also volcanoes found in the ocean and under icecaps, such as some found in Iceland.
- Volcanoes can be active (regular activity), dormant (recent historical activity but now rather quiet, and little noise or moving) or extinct (no activity in historical times and unlikely to erupt again for a long while, perhaps even ever).
- Common volcanic gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen sulfide.
- Volcanic eruptions can send ash high into the air, 17 miles above the Earths surface!
Volcanoes: The Definitions
Stratum - A layer / series of layers of rock in the ground.
Volcanic - Produced by volcanoes, or relating to volcanoes.
Magma - Hot fluid, when cooled, to create a rock-like structure, within the Earths crust.
"A cone-shaped mountain or hill created by molten material that rises from the interior of the Earth to the surface." - definition of a volcano.