Ecosystem Portfolio.

Biotic factors:





Brown Grizzly Bears


Grey wolf

Great Grey owl



(Only water,  Sunlight , Rock , and soil.)








Carrying Capacity and Changes In Population:

Carrying Capacity: carrying capacitycarrying capacities the number or quantity of people or things that can be conveyed or held by a vehicle or container.

The 4 resources needed for survival -Food, Water, Cover and Space.

Evolution is the process by which populations change over time through a process called natural selection. Within every population of organisms, there's variation (changes in fur color, beak shape, etc.). Some of these variations are good, some are bad. Natural selection "selects" those individuals with advantageous traits and variations and "chooses" them to survive. Evolution is NOT an organism's willing to change. In fact, evolution does not work at all with individuals; it is all about populations. Eventually (over very long periods of time), the "weak" or "bad" organisms will practically be gone, and the "strong" will survive. It's commonly known as survival of the fittest. The biggest misconception about evolution is that organisms actually grow stronger during their lives. That concept is found in Lamarckian evolution, not Darwinian evolution.

Limiting Factors and Predator/prey relationship:

Temperate forests make up a majority of the forest type on the eastern coast of the United States as well as parts of Europe and are composed of both deciduous and coniferous trees. In the Southern Appalachians, the forest is also referred to as a temperate rainforest and is known for the richness of its biodiversity.

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limiting factors in the rainforest in the forest Water,and Animals because it can get dry and there can be drought. Sunlight is another limiting factors; this due to a very dense

A predator/prey relationship can be effected by the number of supportive resources resources and shelter that the prey/predator both have to share to survive.(spider and insect)

Energy Roles:

Specific energy roles for the organisms-(decomposer) Earthworms, in general worm, getting there energy from the decomposed and dead animals/plants and other Biotic organisms (consumer)Deer, receive there energy from the producers, witvh the (producers) The grass get the energy from the sun.

Why are producers vital to any ecosystem?-The producers are important to all ecosystems because producers are plants and they make theyre on there own and other plant eating animals eat those to produce energy for its self and otheres.

Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids:

A food web consists of all the different food chains in a particular ecosystem, better presenting the relationship of each living thing to another within that ecosystem. Since one living thing can be a part of multiple food chains, different food chains in a food web interconnect and overlap at different points.

Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids:

All living organisms hold a place in the food chain. For example, plants produce energy from sunlight and provide nutrients for animals, such as rabbits, which are consumed by meat-eating predators, such as mountain lions. Members of the food chain interact with one another and with their environment as part of a complex, interlocking ecological system. Extinction of one species can have a cascading effect on others. When a predatory species becomes threatened or extinct, this removes a check and balance in the food chain on the population of prey previously consumed by that predator. Consequentially, the prey population can explode. For instance, in regions where the wolf is no longer found, white-tail deer have multiplied. The U.S. Forest Service reports that overgrazing of tree saplings, shrubs and wildflowers by uncontrolled deer has been very destructive to forests, especially in the northeastern and Midwestern part of the country. If deer run out of food, they face illness or starvation

Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids:

Why a pyramid is used instead of any other shap in an energy pyramid?  -

Ecological pyramids are diagrams that illustrate how ecologically important factors, such as energy, biomass, and population size, vary between trophic levels in an ecosystem. Traditionally, these diagrams place the primary producers (photosynthetic organisms such as plants) at the bottom and the highest trophic levels at the top of the diagram. The size of the portion of the diagram associated with each trophic level illustrates the amount of energy, biomass, or number of individuals found in each trophic level. Energy flows through the food chain in a predictable way, entering at the base of the food chain, by photosynthesis in primary producers, and then moving up the food chain to higher trophic levels. Because the transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next is inefficient, there is less energy entering higher trophic levels. Thus, diagrams showing how much energy enters each trophic level will have a distinct pyramid shape. Thus, this diagram has become known as the energy pyramid.

why producers are in the largest level (base) and top predators are in the smallest level. (What does this represent?) Because the producers make there own food and starts the food chain and produces the most energy thoughout the whole food chain/web and all the other animals, it all starts with the producer.

A trophic level is a set of species occupying one level of the ecological food chain. The lowest trophic level, Level 1, is that set of organisms that can manufacture their energy and biomass using only sunlight, drawing inorganic nutrients from the soil or water. Feeding upon this lowest tier of organisms are Level 2 organisms in the food chain, often classified as herbivores. The concept of a food web was clearly articulated as early as 1880, but it was not until 1942 that Lindeman introduced the term trophic level to describe the ecological hierarchy of consumption. To allow for the fact that most higher level taxa consume more than one species of prey, the concept of trophic levels other than whole numbers is allowed.

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