Backgrorund-At the start the French Revolution there were three estates. The clergy, nobility, and the commoners. The commoners took up about 98% of the estates and were the lowest class, they lived to serve the other estates and the king. The next were the nobility which were middle class, and them there was the upper class which was known as the clergy. But above all the classes was the king. King Louis XVI was the ruler at this time along with his wife, the queen, Marie Antoinette. The French government was deep in debt and started to create unpopular taxation in order to try to remote the financial status. This hierarchy was soon questioned by the enlightenment, and ideas quickly spread to the public.
1. What were the 3 Estates in the French Social system ranked from highest to lowest. A: nobility, commoner, clergy B: clergy, nobility, commoner C: commoner, clergy, nobility D: clergy, commoner, nobility
2. What was a result of the economic crisis in the 1780's A: people started robbing the king and nobility B: peasants started stealing from their masters C: the government started unnecessarily increasing taxes on the commoners.
3. What was the significance of the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 A: It represented the revolt against the French government B: It weakened the French Alliance with Prussia C: It marked the beginning of the French Revolution D: BOTH A and C.
4. Who took over France shortly after the French Revolution? A: Maximilien Robespierre B: Baron de Montesquieu C: Joseph Stalin D: Napoleon Bonaparte
5. What was the newly device that killed many in a time that was known as the terror? A: the common sword B: the guillotine C: guns
6. The french revolution began and ended with what type of government? A. democracy B. theocracy C. monarchy
7. the enlightenment was a group of individuals who promoted reason, logic, and science.True or false?
8.Who was beheaded on january 21,1793 A. a large amount of commoners B. the queenMarie C. king louis XVI
Declaration of the rights of Men and of the citizen- The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believe that the contempt of the rights of men are the sole cause of public catastrophe. Because human rights are not indeed clarified in the government, it is corrupted. And so with this declaration all human rights will be recognized under the presence of the auspices of the Supreme being.
Who: 3rd estate representing the people roguespierre maxi million
What: stormed Bastille and armory to revolt for a change or rewrite in the constitution.
When: July 14 1789
Where: Bastille an infamous prison and armory in France
Why: the people were unhappy with current laws and wanted a change or reform.
Enlightenment During French Revolution-The French Philosophes played an enormous part in the French Revolution. They were somewhat responsible for the French Revolution. They spread ideas and philosophies. This encouraged commoners to think against the government and revolt.Though, they didn't play an active role in the events of the revolution, their ideas inspired the revolutionary movement. The main philosophers were Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot and Montesquieu. Montesquieu proposed the idea of a system of checks and balances, where a monarch should not operate with absolute power, but limited power. This inspired revolutionaries to demand this form of government in France, and to act in revolt against the absolute monarchy at the time.Diderot was the creator of the Encyclopédia. This brought awareness to the inequality in France by describing some of the injustices of the absolute monarchy. It promoted individual rights which influenced the revolutionaries.Voltaire's main ideas revolved around individual liberties. He believed that people should have freedom of expression, religion, movement, and press. He spoke out against the financial inequality and the government oppression in France. His ideas inspired revolutionaries to seek greater liberal rights and freedom.
Internal and external wars-There were many key internal and external battles that greatly impacted the French Revolution.The first key battle in the French Revolution was the Declaration of Pillnitz on August 27, 1791. This battle declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution. It also declared that European powers would intervene if Louis XVI was threatened, this battle was intended to serve as a warning to the French revolutionaries not to infringe further on the king's reign. It also declared that Austria would go to war if and only if all the other major European powers also went to war with France. This was an external battle because it involved Austria, Prussia, and the Holy Roman Empire. Another external battle took place on April 29, 1792, when France invaded the Austrian Netherlands. One internal war was the 13th action on January 1797, in Brittany France.
Economic crisis- an economic crisis contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution. A long cycle of depression had Been in effect since 1770. 50% of the people living in urban areas were unemployed. Successive bad harvest made the situation perilous.the starving commoners could not afford to buy bread. Food shortages contributed towards bread riots, burning, and looting.the lower classes began to get irate data the fact that they began to lack power in government. The social unrest and mounting problems led Louis XVI to call a meeting of the Estates-General for the first time since 1614.
Bastille day - Bastille day is known as the start date of the French Revolution. This was the day revolutionists ( commoners ) decided to storm the Bastille. It was a prison in France where they incarcerated people who did not agree with the Kings decisions (people of influence were held in prison) So on July 14th, 1789 a large number of French commoners gathered together and stormed the Bastille in hopes of capturing ammunition and weapons. It is seen as a symbol of uprising in the modern nation and an act of rebellions for all the bad things the king had done.
Maximilien de Robespierre- He was a radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. Robespierre was elected president of the powerful Jacobin political faction. A year later, he participated in writing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the foundation of the French constitution.On July 27, 1793, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, formed to oversee the government with virtual dictatorial control.