TRANSPLANTS IN THE USA
Authors: Anais, Alejandra, Paula G, Javier and J Juan.
Hello in this report we are going to study transplants in the USA.
We will study the most common transplants in this country and the people's opinion about being live and decased donors.
We are going to talk about the transplants in the USA.
In day 1: the introduction and explanation.
In day 2 and day 3:data(surgery graphs) and data explanation.
In day 4:write the conclusion,finish the investigation.
In days 5,6,7:creat the blo¡g and post all the investigation and report information.
transplants happen when we change an organ or a tissue that do not work well for a healthy one.
Live donor are the ones that are alive and give the organs to other people.
Death donors are the ones that are death and
give the organs to other people.
EXPLANATION3 Organs that can be transplanted are the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine
The people that donate a organ when is alive it have bravery because the operation can be good or can fail so, if you want to be a live donor you have to be sure because you don't now if it's gonna be good.
The people that is a death donor donate and organ when they die, they can donate only the organs that are in a good state because they can´t put a bad organ in other body because is bad to one person.
Transplants are very dangerous you can die in a transplant. You have to have a good specialize doctor in transplants. But if you survive is a good notice. You can tell us if you want to be a live or a death donor.
There are many types of transplants, but this is the most common in USA.
The most common transplants in the USA is the kidney , the second is the liver, the third is the heart, the lung is the fourth, the fifth is the kidney + pancreas, the sixth is the pancreas, the seventh is the intestine and the eight the heart and the lungs.
When people need a lifesaving organ the resort to transplants.
Every ten minutes, someone is added to the national transplant waiting list.
One average, 21 people die each day while waiting for a transplant.
In the USA, waitilised patients have been widely used in transplation
research, by a healthy plans for reimbursement purposes are commonly used in healthy-services research.
All transplanted waitlisted patients in the registry were considered for inclusion.A multistep match algorithm was employed to link and payer data from years 1995 to 2004. Variables common to both datasets that contained relevant information for similar time periods were compared.
A total of 21,419 solid organ transplant recipients and 8808 waitlist were included in the final linked database.Using claims as the reference group, sensitivity and specify values were on average 0.72 and 0.69 respectively, and were highest for the indicators of immunosuppression use at discharge and follow-up.
This comparison of payer data that provides important insight into the value of both data sources. Using administrative claims to augment the registry data with utilization and cost information will be useful for evaluation of both economic and clinical endpoints in solid organ transplantation.
With more than 200 transplants centers in the U.S. alone, finding the one that best suits your needs may seem like an overwhelming task.
Thousands of lives depend on receiving organs and tissues for transplant, but there is a severe and chronic shortage of donor organs. Every year, more than 1,500 people die waiting for a donated liver to become available.
Only once an individual is declared “brain dead” can organs be retrieved to save the lives of others. Brain dead means the brain has ceased to function with absolutely no hope of recovery. The spark of life is gone, and the body and its organs can function only if supported by artificial means. A brain tumor, severe trauma to the brain, or drowning can cause a person to become brain dead. Standards for determining whether a person is brain dead are strict and require a neurospecialist to confirm the diagnosis of the attending physician.
Organ and tissue retrieval is accomplished through regional organ banks, which may be contacted through your local hospital. Special surgical teams are mobilized. Tissue typing labs begin cross-matching, and a search is made for the best possible recipient. The organs are retrieved as soon as possible, packed in preservation solution and ice, and transported with maximum speed to their destination. The miracle is about to happen.
Organ transplants are well-accepted therapies performed routinely at specialized transplant centers and saving thousands of lives each year. 6000 liver transplants are performed annually in the U.S., and the number continues to rise. Liver transplant patients have an approximately 86% one-year and 78% three-year survival rate, comparable to the current survival rate for heart transplant patients.
on allogeneic bone marrow transplants--transplants in which the patient receives bone marrow from a related or unrelated donor--collected from over 450 bone marrow transplant centers worldwide. Information on over 40% of all allogeneic transplants performed worldwide is captured. The database as of 2001 includes information for over 76,000 patients receiving bone marrow transplants for more than 200 diseases. Patients are followed longitudinally, with current follow-up for greater than 90% of all patients transplanted since 1986.
Transplant programs must notify CMS immediately of significant changes to the program that could affect its compliance with Medicare's requirements (required under 42 CFR 482.74). The term "immediately" is considered to be within 7 business days of the change occurring.
These changes include: changes in key staff members, a decrease in the number of transplants performed, a decrease in the program's survival rates, the termination of an agreement between the hospital and the Organ Procurement Organization, and inactivation by the transplant program. A detailed description of the notification requirements.
The evaluation of a transplant program's compliance with Medicare requirements involves several steps. CMS will obtain data from UNOS, the contractor for the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network's (OPTN), and from the University of Michigan to provide background and determine compliance with the program's OPTN membership, submission of forms to OPTN, clinical experience (volume), and outcomes, as applicable. CMS will share this information with either the State Survey Agency or CMS' Contractor (depending upon the provider's location) to incorporate into their onsite evaluation of compliance with the Medicare Conditions of Participation.
University of Michigan Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center (UMKECC) is contracted with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to provide research and analysis of transplant and organ procurement data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant. Recipients (SRTR) and to identify practice changes. UMKECC also assists CMS with oversight and administration of Survey and Certification activities. Specifically, UMKECC:
Data are collected for the UK Transplant Registry (UKTR) through a series of electronic and paper ‘forms’. Data are submitted by NHSBT and hospital staff including Specialist Nurses for Organ Donation, National Organ Retrieval Service personnel, transplant surgeons, recipient transplant coordinators and other hospital staff providing transplant follow-up information. Current versions of data collection forms can be viewed directly from the NHSBT document system.
Founded in 1987, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) operates under a contract from the US government administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). SRTR maintains a database of comprehensive information on all solid organ transplantation in the US. The registry supports the ongoing evaluation of the clinical status of solid organ transplantation, including kidney, heart, liver, lung, intestine, pancreas, and multi-organ transplants. Data in the registry are from multiple sources, but most are collected by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) from hospitals, organ procurement organizations, and immunology laboratories. The data include information on current and past organ donors, transplant candidates, transplant recipients, transplant outcomes, and outcomes of living donors.
SRTR uses these data to create reports and analyses for HRSA, OPTN committees that make organ allocation policy, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to carry out quality assurance surveillance activities; SRTR also creates standard analysis files for scientific investigators. In addition, SRTR and OPTN produce an Annual Data Report and provide information upon request for the general public. Thus, SRTR supports the transplant community with information services and statistical analyses to improve patient access to and outcomes of organ transplant.
There are over 270 transplant centers currently operating within the United States. All of them are members of the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) network, and each works with organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to ensure fair and equitable allocation of organs. Each center is unique. The transplant services offered, costs for those services, insurance coverage, survival rates and other factors vary from center to center.
Now we are going to tell you our opinion
We think that is good to donate because imagen you have a kid and he needs a kidney so you donate yours.I like to be a death donor and live donor,is very good ,i think that the people need donate are very good persons.
We think that the people that donate a organ live or death is good because if someone donate a organ and you donated you can save one or more lives.
Our opinion is that is very bad that to much people need a transplant, because a transplant is very dangerous and you can die.That is very good because if a person don't have an organ can died but if a person give an organ can save them.
another thing we think that we have to donate our organs to other people because the other people that need organs are very,very hill and they needed the organs that we have.We we are die we can donate our organs to the other people.