This is ancient Mesopotamia, Mesopotamia means land between rivers. It is between the Tigris and Euphrates river. Due to it's location Mesopotamia had very fertile soil, because when the rivers flood it leaves behind silt. The location of Mesopotamia made it a very wanted place. It was easy to invade, but hard to protect. Mesopotamian civilizations developed many ways to protect their land. Mesopotamian civilizations had a lot of creations to better their society, and advance their culture. Some of which we have modified and still use to this day.
The civilizations in the Mesopotamian area were the founders of many things when it comes to government. A civilization in Mesopotamia, Sargon, was the first civilization to become an empire. An empire is land with different territories under a single rule. The civilization, Babylon, was the first to have their laws written down. The laws were called Hammurabi's code, they were written on a 7 foot tall basalt slate. It placed it in the middle of Babylon, so everyone knows the consequences for their actions. People believed that these laws were handed down from the gods, so they would obey them to be in favor of the gods. Hammurabi's code is shown in the picture below.
Hammurabi's code was written in cuneiform, the very first system of writing. Cuneiform was created by Sumerians. Civilizations in Mesopotamia created many things. One thing they created was the wheel, the wheel allowed them to travel easier, and transport things faster. Another one of the important creations was the calender, the calender allowed them to keep track of important dates, and tell what season it was. All of these inventions, or creations are shown below.
Mesopotamian civilizations also were very developed in the arts, and architecture. The civilizations have a temple in the center of nearly every city. These temples tower high above many of the other building and houses. Many of these temples had statues of gods in them.These temples were very important to to their society.
The people in that worked in these temples were called priests. Priests were at the top of the social pyramid, just under kings. A social pyramid is the way the town's social order is organized.Below priests is craftspeople, merchants, and traders. On the bottom half is farmers, and laborers. The very bottom level is slaves. The social pyramid was very important, but it was unfair.