Novgorod, founded in the 9th or 10th century, is the capital of Novgorod region, located northwest of European Russia, on the Volkhov River near the point where it leaves Lake Ilmen [1]. It is 180 km away from St. Petersburg and 524 km from Moscow [2].

Luxury goods that were traded with the city:

Furs, hides, wax, honey, flax, and tar were the chief exports [1]. Cloth, metals, textiles, jewelry, and wine were imported from Europe and corn from central Russia [1].

How did goods get to the city:

Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod, and they called it Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof) [3]. This was established in 1080 [3]. Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany also established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof [3].

Economic status:

This new trading city was founded as a trading post and was the largest Russian town on the gulf of Finland [1]. Novgorod was considered to be the second main city after Kiev in Russia in the mid centuries [4]. Novgorod was the main Russian port for many centuries and was important for Baltic sea trade, so the city participated in the Hansa Union (the union of the richest Baltic ports) [4].

Role of the city:

Novgorod is the chief center of foreign trade[1]. Situated on the great trade route to the Volga valley, it became one of the four chief trade centers of the Hanseatic League [1]. It never fully joined the Hanseatic league, but in 1259 they established a trading post there, which participated in most of the Baltic trade [1]. This eliminated the need for ships to take the dangerous route around Scandinavia [1].

Function of the city:

Novgorod id the first and only republic in Russia [4]. Because Novgorod was the city of trade, merchants got power and decided to get rid of the nobles [4]. Surrounded by churches and monasteries, it was also a center for Orthodox spirituality as well as Russian architecture [5].








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