Building a Universe
how to create a universe with all the ingredients
An earth is in a solar system which is in one tiny part of a galaxy that has over 300 billion stars. For this project I will be using Richard Hamond to be a model for our use. There are half a trillion galaxies in a Universe so we need to build the sun and galaxies to build a Universe. But you are going to need a very high platform to make this. Our platform is all white and probably bigger than 100,0000 metres tall and it has a very high stabled ladder for us to climb up to the very top, also a long waiting elevator letting us go UP. The planet first was absolutely nothing. Now, the world was made by an amazing thing called The Big Bang, but it was not a bang at all it's more like a balloon. The Big Bang is a rapid expansion and it's basically like blowing up a balloon. But the earth expanded much more quicker than a normal balloon. The Big Bang is not just a balloon, so for our Universe we are going to need lots of balloons and not just a balloon but a hot air balloon, and The Big Bang could still be happening. After your Big Bang there is no light at night time so if you want to have some light you're going to need to make stars and they actually make stars near Oxford. Now the only thing that was around when The Big Bang was over was hydrogen gas, and until it ignites that is a star, so we are going to need this for our stars.
This is briefly more powerful than a city. When you shoot it up into the sky for a few seconds it will reach up to the temperature of 100 million degrees. If something goes wrong it could cause a lot of extreme damage. At Oxford they made an incredible machine which makes heat and squeezes the hydrogen gas where lots of force ignites which creates a star and light so when it is dark we will have lots of stars to light up the sky. It doesn't just make light but it also makes new ingredients, and that's going to help us build our Universe. The stars start off with hydrogen and then they get to helium and then they make oxygen and all the other things your body is made out of. Within a star these elements are made but then we need to know how does it get elsewhere? if it's a big enough star it would explode and it will destroy everything, all the carbon, all the iron, all the metal and the dust and particles. Our ingredients are a very big erosion with all our special contents.
Now back on our big tower we are going to put light up there. All we need is a star and then we have got supernova. A supernova is the biggest explosion there ever is. This is an essential stage in our construction process because it takes all our elements created in big stars and takes them everywhere in the night sky. And when it's big I really do mean BIG. Once your supernova has finished, the supernova will have scattered all the ingredients around our enormous tower. Now we've got carbon, oxygen, iron and all the other elements that are needed for our Universe to make all our planets, including human beings.
Now everything is practically star dust - you, me, everybody, all of it created from a magnificent star. And that cloud of gas and dust, that is called a nebula. So now we can make a star using all our very useful elements, we will call it the sun.
Our original sun took 50 million years to form and up on our tower it will only take us seconds to build. The dust and gas is our popular formula to build the sun for our extraordinary solar system on our extremely high platform.
The first amazing planet to start to form is Jupiter, but unfortunately something isn't exactly right. The young planet is starting to hoover up way too much of the gas and rock. Our aim of process is slowing it down causing it to form inwards towards the bright sun. Which is a big problem because all our big ingredients are going to form all our other interesting planets. It's very bad, do you know how to stop our Jupiter gobbling up all our amazing materials being used up? Well fortunately there is a man who does know.
He is called Professor Alexei Fllippenko. Now I'm going to tell you what a Fresnel lens is, and surprisingly powerful for a simple device. For this device it is a mirror acting as a sun in our planet and a piece of wood is underneath the mirror as our formed Jupiter and the mirror has shone down onto the wood instantly burning the wood. So little energetic particles of light are coming from the sun and they are being very carefully focused on Professor Alexei's wood. In the case of an early solar system our sun was much brighter then it was then. So the particles of dust and gas are gradually heating up causing to actually evaporate away, to be blown out of the solar system. That means that our Jupiter is gradually spiralling into the amazing sun. Now I have a question, our Jupiter is not made out of wood right, and the demonstration was made of wood so is our exciting Jupiter going to stop the erosion? We are now going to put a rock underneath our invention and the rock is acting as Mercury and it appears that the rock does flame up although sparks and some fire does the same thing as the sparks and the rock exploding off like a volcano. The rock is now heating up so extraordinarily at the temperature of 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. So now we don't have to worry about our amazing Jupiter. So this is another project happening where everything has to be at the right time and in the right place and too much of our rock heating up will literally explode it.
So now I think we know that we have got a simple and very impressive plan. We are going to use the sun to for our extraordinary Jupiter to stop it spiralling inwards taking all our progress material from disappearing. So let's get lots of light from our sun building up and get all those photons pumping up. So now our Jupiter and our super amazing solar system has got it's way all cleared. Now all of our other ingredients are ready for the rest of our incredible solar system.
Now we need to know how to make the rest of our Universe. Now we are visiting some roller-skaters. Now you might think this is not exclusively part of our project, but it is. This is why we are roller-skating, we are doing this for a genuine scientific demonstration. It's basically like our early solar system. Imagine our sun in the centre of the roller-skate track providing the amazing gravity to pull around booster rocks of different sizes. These planets are called planetesimals. There are small planetesimals, and big ones which were all affected by each others gravity. Potential planets were thrown out of the solar system. Some lady roller-skaters were ok and some fell over heavily. The smaller planets jostled more than the other tougher and bigger ones. And the rocks that were throne out of place still exist (because for our demonstration we used women and some of them got knocked out but they were still alive). A graveyard of broken worlds now orbits the sun as a ring of debris known as the asteroid belt.
Now we are back at our amazing, tall tower. We've first got our colourful Jupiter and beside that we have got the asteroid belt and all the rest of our extraordinary planets in our big solar system. There is Mercury, the Sun, then Venus and Mars and apparently there is a volcano here called Olympus Mons, three times higher than Mount Everest. Jupiter is the biggest and most indescribable planet in our solar system and if we added up all the other planets it would be much more bigger than them all put together. Saturn with all its incredible rings, so light it could float on a lake. Uranus is where the summer only lasts 21 years as do our planet's winters. And finally Neptune, freezing cold with hurricane winds of 1,000km an hour. And all these planets are all awesomely terrific! And of course there is one missing planet in our solar system - Earth (where humans live) and where it goes critical.
But we need to know why Earth is so special. What do we need for life in our solar system? To find out we are going to go into a mine cave in Italy to find out. Tempting to go on an extreme place on Earth. Where we are heading it is so toxic like a mysterious alien planet. Where the place is, is a very dark and gloomy cave with a shimmery lake. We are going to go down into a cavy like place likely to have living creatures inside the gruesome thing. To get down there you have to climb down three kilometres to see if there are living things down there. This cave has been explored many years ago. Our expedition is lend by astrobiology Professor Jen Macoleeny. And our cave we are exploring is unfortunately extremely tight and you can get stuck very easily ( I warn you, you have to be NOT scared of heights). Deep below the surface there appears to be water, it is very beautiful. Remember there is absolutely no light and where our Professor is going there is no oxygen at all. The water is even poisonous and it's going to be hard to find living things down there. My hypothesis was that our wonderful cave would have heaps of living creatures like scorpions, spiders, maybe ants, termites and all other sorts of predators in the mystical and somehow magical cave. This could be one of the dangerous dives in the world. When your skin touches the stinky water you will become very sick. When you go down the places you squeeze through get smaller and smaller. You sometimes have to choose the right hole otherwise you will definitely get trapped so my advice is to be wise and choose the right hole. Plus you have a tank of fresh air and you could run out if you don't be careful. And of course fish could die instantly as they touch the unnatural water. Each time you choose a hole it gets darker and darker. You also have to have a good memory to find your way back up and not get stuck. Finally our scientists have found what they are hopefully looking for. If you want to go down there, you have to be super trained and have a licence. Also you need to have lots of stabilised materials and lots of equipment to go down into the caves and waters like ropes, safe cables and other interesting things. Cave dives are very dangerous because if there is a disaster or an unfortunate problem you can't just pop back up to surface. In the water it looks like an erie blob of disgusting unnatural water with little dead fish. Now our Professor has gone down enough and has found something alive. They look like they are little alien tentacles. Now because we are working with a scientist they are going to test the object and we are now waiting for our results. All that is left in the water is rocks, no oxygen and very poisonous water but then all of a sudden we come across one extraordinary living thing in the horrible water. So now we know that the essential ingredient for our planet is water.
Back at our unessential tower we now that we need water as a fresh liquid and where it is in our solar system is key. If Earth is too close to our Sun its amazing power will create the water to sink and dry up on the place where we live. If it the Universe is too close to Saturn the water on Earth will freeze within it's brown rings. Near Mars is about 142 million miles from the hot Sun.
To find out if Mars is suitable for liquid for life we will be visiting Anises Rover driving on the dry surface and our guide today is Mike Gurnheaht. NASA is wanting to create human beings on the land in 100 years, their goal in the company is to find the amazing life for us. The problem is our Mars has all our liquid for our rich Planet. NASA is going to show us how this is caused. The first thing we see is the Robonots which looks like it's like a mannequin doll in space and the Robonot looks like a him and for some reason it looks like he's got unnaturally bent fingers. The second thing we see is a Space exploration vehicle which looks like a Star Wars ship with black windows with a kind of octagon shape. Now we are at a ship that looks like it's going to get us to Mars in a safe transport for flying. It is called Aurion Space Ship and we are excitingly getting inside. Mike is going to show us how it would be like actually going to Mars as a trained astronaut (not really going into Mars, just an experience). First you will get in an uncomfortable position as if you were flying up into space in a rocket. You can fit four men or women in the aircraft. Generally it's a nine month trip out of our enormous Earth taking us to out of space.
Now we know what we need with the water on Mars. But first we are going to need to have a space suit like an astronaut. We are wearing Z-1 next Gen Prototype. Besides us Bruce Wince is the only non-astronaut that has been in a real spacey and white suit. NASA is letting us to be in a full Mars atmosphere suit simulation.
This space suit is white, inflated, chubby and technical, it looks very light like you are in space but we are not. We need to pump up the suit to inflate it. They are going to release us from the dawning stand. So if we were on Mars right now without a suit you will die instantly. Our Mars is very close to Earth yet we certainly couldn't live there with life. Well, Mike is going to show us using just an ordinary glass of water and another glass cover to cover the water in the cup and a thick pump. We are pumping the air out of it to make it a kind of vacuum cleaner and we are also using the oxygen as powerful as it is on. The water is bubbling as if it was an erupting volcano that's shooting up like a school science project. The temperature of the fizzing water is about 100 degrees celsius. The water is hot enough that it can boil and burn humans blood. Now our water is radically heating and bursting up (it's good that we put a protection for the glass of water heating up rapidly). Now Mike is going to teach us how to do this fun experiment. You first need to know the planet size before you do anything. If you don't have much gravity the atmosphere will eventually go away and as the atmosphere drops our water will sink away. The Planet is a very complicated thing to build.
Back at the tower we have got the right position on our horribly amazing Earth so that the water won't freeze or go ice cold instantly. Both Earth and Mars are in that zone. Now we know that it has to be big enough to hold liquid water to stop it from escaping to our extraordinary, amazing enthusiastic and rich solar system. But not only does it have to be the perfect shape but it has to be the perfect size. Our placing has to be precisely in between Mars and Venus. Now we have all our planets set out in the right position which scientists called The Middle Aged Yellow Dwarf. We have built a solar system now. Now we only have one tiny star but we are going to need hundreds, thousands, millions, billions and trillions of those amazing stars because it's just not like our solar system. If you do want to make all the stars, all we need is one and then it gradually will keep creating more stars. Right now in our solar system we have over 100 billion stars in it.
Astronomers have even given it a galactic address Aurion Arm. It's good that we are in the galactic sticks because we don't want to make a mistake. Because we would be swooped up into a massive big black hole. These are stars that have collapsed into it. Stars sit at the centre of most galaxies building our own incredible Milky Way. Light can't even escape from the black hole. If we are building a planet, we need more than one galaxy, some spiralling, some swirling, some diving, some swinging, some swishing, all of them amazingly unique. And some scientists have discovered that our Milky Way's need more than all the grains of sand in the world. Unfortunately now our galaxies are blowing up and flying apart. Our universe is missing something vitally important which has a massive gravitational force and holds the universe together. The scientists named it "Dark Matter". A scientist is going to take us to the place underground where "Dark Matter" is found. The scientists have spent over $100 million on a water tank and equipment that surrounds the Dark Matter detector. The Dark Matter detector is on. Inside the Dark Matter detector is a capsule of xenon. The scientists used the xenon in the detector to track down the Dark Matter. The particles excite the atoms and the atoms emit light, which the scientists detect. The Dark Matter is important because it holds universes together. If the scientists can detect it, they will have solved one of the great mysteries in science.
Now we are back at our tower and we have tried out the xenon and it is working in our galaxies.
All our galaxies are all delicately finished as as our solar system. So we have used all the things we need and we have created a universe.
By Lily Hermans