Definition 1: the act or process of reaching a conclusion about something from known facts or evidence.
Definition 2: a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
"Jerome knows that Baltimore is known for its crab cakes and Jerome is going to a seafood restaurant in Baltimore for dinner tonight." I can infer that the Seafood restaurant in Baltimore is gonna serve crab cakes because Baltimore is known for crab cakes.
"I'm walking thru a forest of regret, fears and tears that have been built inside of me for the past few years." I can infer that the author has went through bad times from the analogy the author said of walking through a forest of regret,fears and tears.
"The last period bell cut off the cacophony of fresh gossip. My ears burned with embarrassment, and I walked away as quickly as possible, feeling clunky and awkward." I can infer that the author is the target of the gossip from when he said "My ears burned with embarrassment."
"I tried to shrug off the girls' malice as ignorance, but I became preoccupied with thought. My blood rose with anger as I heard their laughter in the background." I can infer that the girls are making jokes about the author. I can tell since the author started getting mad as he heard them laugh about the jokes targeted at him.