The Civil War

The German Revolution of 1848
Causes and Effects of Immigration to the United States in the 1800's

Tackk by Ellie Steingard


Kings or princesses ruled most of the German states. They each had their own laws, collected their own taxes, and were responsible for their own defense. Many had constitutions and parliaments but people still didn't have much say in their government.

Cause of a Revolution

Germans mostly all believed in the same rights of freedom of the press, trial by jury, constitutional system of government in the states, and the unification of Germany into a one nation-state. There were liberal and democratic oppositions as well as different views on political beliefs. Social and political strains grew, and there were  economic dangers including a failed harvest. People's gatherings and peasants' uprisings increased.

The German population was increasing quicker than the economy. Some areas progressed, but others were still suffering. Most people farmed for a living, and the cities were not large.

The Rebellion

People in Paris rebelled against their king in 1848. Once the Germans heard, they joined in with the rebellion. Many Germans were hoping they would be able to replace the Confederation with a better unified nation, and they began to write a new constitution in Frankfurt.

Germans lost interest and some didn't agree with the purpose. The governments also started to recover. At the assembly in Frankfurt, they didn't know whether Catholic Austria or Protestant Prussia should be in control of Germany. They compromised for an emperor and a two-house parliament. The revolution was defeated and the German Confederation of 1815 was resumed.


One third of almost 7 and a half million German immigrants fled to the United States in the second wave of immigration to America. They had enough money, so most moved to the Midwest to look for farmland, but some took low paid jobs in the cities.

Nativists opposed immigration. They hated immigrants so intensely and disliked Catholics, the Know Nothing Party was formed to proposed laws that would prevent Catholics from being able to hold political office or vote, and nativists threatened the rights of immigrants.

With all the new jobs from the Industrial and Transportation Revolutions, a new social class merged: the middle class. They enjoyed new forms of entertainment, including bowling, theater, and libraries.

There was a rapid growth of cities. This turned into crowding, dirty, and bad living conditions, loud noises, and unsanitary things and places leading to suffrage of diseases. There were many fires and criminal activity, but no one to stop this because there were no firemen or policemen. These became the focus of reformers because they wanted to try and fix it.


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