Chapter 13, Section 4

Sub-section heading: A New Physics

  • Key point: Mechanical Universe disproved.

  • Key point: Atoms found to be more than small material bodies.

  • Key point: Marie Curie discovered that radium gave off radiation.

  • Key point: Einstein says time and space are directly connected to matter.

Sub-section heading: Freud and Psychoanalysis

  • Key point: Freud believes that behaviours are shaped by previous happenstances.

  • Key point: Psychoanalysis created. (It’s fun to psychoanalyize people who are supposed to psychoanalize you.)

  • Key point: Freud discovered unconsciousness.

  • Key point: Freud’s ideas gained acceptance after 1920.

Sub-section heading: Social Darwinism and Racism

  • Key point: People misrepresent scientific theories inappropriately.

  • Key point: Herbert Spencer says that the rich and poor are the fit and unfit.

  • Key point: Some thought that the aryan race was the ‘master race’ and blamed the jewish for wanting to destroy them.

Sub-section heading: Anti-Semitism and Zionism

  • Key point: Anti-semitism is not new.

  • Key point: Anti-semitic slogans during Dreyfus’s trial.

  • Key point: Government refuses to have a new trial.

  • Key point: Pogroms carried out towards Russian Jews.

Sub-section heading: Literature and Painting

  • Key point: Symbolists started art revolution

  • Key point: Why draw or paint something realistically when there is a camera?

  • Key point: Art now more focused on artistic things.

  • Key point: Poems and Freudian things now written about.

Sub-section heading: Architecture

  • Key point: Functionalism rises.

  • Key point: U.S. is leading in Functionalism.

  • Key point: Concrete, Steel, and electric elevator used to build skyscraper.


  • Psychoanalysis - A series of theories popularized by Sigmund Freud.
  • Pogrom - An organized slaughter of Russian Jews.
  • Modernism - Art made by people who felt that the older styles were outdated.
  • New ideas in physics and psychology.


  • People hated the Jewish.
  • New Ideas bout Physics changed science.
  • New ideas about art and architecture.

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