The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 CE
Classical civilizations valued ideas of religion, philosophy, and government which were spread through integration (mixing and combining) and expansion.
Ancient India and China: throughout the classical world, integration and expansion faltered between 200 - 500 CE. Decline, even collapse, began to affect India and China. This was caused by political instability and nomadic invasion.
Japan: at the peak of its development because of the growth of agriculture and religion (Shintoism).
Northern Europe: lagged behind every other civilization in the world.
Central America: Olmec developed and spread civilization; progress was greater than that of Europe and Africa.
Fall of the Roman Empire happened because of political corruption, decreasing population because of plagues, and loss of interest in culture
- The city states tried to be self sufficient, led to political and economic decline
- Eastern and Western portions of the empire developed differently after the fall of Rome
- Trade, production, culture, political & economic stability, all declined.
Byzantium Empire: picked up where Rome left off in the east. Centered on Constantinople.
- West- overrun by barbarians.
Religion: Political instability led to a need for spiritual comfort - Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam rose,
- emphasized spiritual growth beyond daily concerns
- Spread through trade and travel, positive and negative effects
- Hinduism: India, Buddhism: Eastern Asia, Islam: Middle East, Christianity: worldwide
- Syncretism: blending new beliefs with old