States of Consciousness
Alyssa, Krista, Kelly
Sleep and Dreams
circadian rhythm: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms
REM sleep: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
NREM sleep: non–rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
- Sleep protects.
- Sleep helps us recuperate.
- Sleep is for making memories.
- Sleep feeds creative thinking.
- Sleep may play a role in the growth process.
- sleep apnea
- night terrors
manifest content: according to Freud, he remembered story line of a dream
latent content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
- Nathaniel Kleitman's purpose was to discover sleep cycles in adults through electrodes attached to his volunteers
- William Dement discovered the moment the brain's window to the outside world "shut off" by having the volunteer hit a button whenever a strobe light was flashed into his eyes, he eventually began to miss the flashes
- a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
- posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
- dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneoulsy
-Can anyone be hypnotized? Depends on the subject's willingness.
-Can hypnosis enhance recall or forgotten events? No.
-Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? No.
-Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Yes.
-Can hypnosis alleviate pain? Yes.
Drugs and Consciousness
MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT ADDICTION:
- Myth 1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leads to heroin abuse.
- Myth 2. Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily; therapy is required.
- Myth 3. We can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors.
- David Abrams and Terence Wilson demonstrated that people when they believe they have been drinking alcohol will act accordingly, even if they never drank any at all
- Men participated in an "alcohol and sexual stimulation" study where half were told they were drinking alcohol and the other half were not