*{Ancient Dynasties}*

By: Brooke Hall

-Topics: Sui, Song, Tang, Mongols, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian Dynasties


*Sui and Tang Dynasties*

---Rulers of Sui---

           WENDI reunified China. Also known as Yang Jian, Wendi founded the new Sui dynasty and became its first emperor. Using earlier dynasties as models, Wendi worked to build a centralized government. He restored order, created a new legal code, and reformed the bureaucracy. He also created policies to provide all adult males with land and to ensure the availability of grain.

          YANG DI, Wendi's son, forced millions of peasants to work on the Grand Canal and other projects. The Grand Canal was a 1,000 mile waterway linked to northern and southern China. This canal allowed northern China to easily access the resources of the south, such as the rice produced in the lower Chang Jiang valley. Because of this canal, hundreds of thousands of laborers died, leading to discontent and rebellion. A series of failed military campaigns worsened the situation. In 618 an official assassinated Yang Di, and the short-lived Sui dynasty came to an end.

---Rulers of Tang---

          TAIZONG 626 to 649 and much of the empires expansion happened during his reign. He was one of China's most admired emperors, Taizong relied on talented ministers to help him govern. In addition to his military conquests, he had schools built to prepare students for the civil service exams. After his death his son took over.

          WU ZHAO gained power after her husband, Taizong's son, had became ill. When her husband died, Wu Zhao continued to rule through her sons. Wanting full power, she became emperor herself -- the only woman to hold the title in Chinese history. She was overthrown in 705.

          Xuanzong, who had overthrown Empress Wu Zhao, ruled from 712 to 756. During his reign, the empire prospered and culture flourished.

---Government and Capital of Sui---

          Using earlier dynasties as models, Wendi worked to build a centralized government. He restored order, created a new legal code, and reformed the bureaucracy. He also created policies to provide all adult males with land and to ensure the availability of grain.  All in the capital of Chang'an.

---Government and Capital of Tang---

          The Tang rulers built on Sui foundations to create a strong government. They established the capital to be at Luoyang. Government control remained centralized and based on a bureaucracy of officials. To obtain talented officials, the Tang expanded the civil service examination system. Under this system, people had to pass written exams to work for the government. In addition, Tang rulers created a flexible law code, which became a model for law codes in Korea and Japan.

---Culture and Influences of the Tang---

         The produced great achievements in the arts and technology, many of which had an influence around the world. Tang artists made lively figurines, such as female polo players.

---The Tang Decline---

          The Tang Dynasty began to decline in the 750's. Although the Tang put down a rebellion in 755, the government remained weak. At the same time, military defeats led to the loss of Tang lands in Central Asia and the north. Nomadic Invasions and peasant rebellions over rising taxes created more problems. When a powerful general killed the emperor in 907, the Tang dynasty ended.  

for more info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2DwGAiZnRM


*Song Dynasty*

---Rulers of Song---

           Due to civil service exams, scholar officials were the government. These civil service were extremely hard to pass but open to the public. If and when you passed the test, you were put into the government. Because these tests were open to the public many and all people could take them, the exams became a pathway to gaining wealth and status.

---Government and Capital of Song---

          The Song established a capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control. To manage their empire, they enlarged their government bureaucracy. In addition, they reformed the civil service exams system, which helped ensure that talented people ran the government. The exams tested student's grasp of Confucianism and related ideas.

---Culture and Influences of The Song---

          The Tang period produced some of China's best poets. The Song Dynasty period was a period of great culture achievement. Art and Literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology during this period.

     Such as:

Porcelain: a type of ceramic also known as China

Pagoda: multistory buildings that featured roofs at each floor that curved upwards at the corners

Woodblock Printing: a new method of printing, where a page of text is carved into a block of wood then covered in ink and pressed onto a piece of paper

Movable Type: another form of printing, where they used blocks on which individual letters or characters are carved then they could be arranged to create a page of text

for more info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QO7NHZJ-eE4




---Ruler of the Mongols---

        GENGHIS KHAN rose to power through his military skills and ability to lead. In The late 1100's he began to conquer his rivals and untie the Mongol clans. In 1206 he claimed the title "Universal Ruler".

---Government of the Mongols---

         Because the Mongols were a nomadic tribe, they did not have a very stable government. When they conquered an area they let their original ruler keep control as long as they paid tribute or riches to the Mongols.

---Culture and Influence of the Mongols---

         The Mongols had adopted aspects of the more civilized cultures they had conquered.

for more info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szxPar0BcMo


*Yuan Dynasty*

---Ruler of Yuan---

          Kublai Khan did not force the Chinese to adopt Mongol ways of life. Instead, he adopted some Chinese practices, and even gave his dynasty a Chinese name, Yuan.

---Government and Capital of Yuan---

          To strengthen his control, Kublai Khan moved his capital from Mongolia to a new city in China. The new capital was located near what is now the city of Beijing, which is the modern capital of China. Although Kublai left much of the Chinese government in tact, he distrusted the Chinese and striped them of much of their powers. Only non-Chinese could hold higher government posts.

for more info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDBgwJiWMsU


             JAPAN AND KOREA

*Yamato Clan*

*Heian Period*

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