Southeast Asia(Britain, Dutch)
Imperialism in Southeast Asia had a similar cause and effect which could be found throughout the world including China, Africa, and India. Imperialism in Southeast Asia was motivated by more dominate European powers searching for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts.
The Dutch East Indies was established on the lands of Java and in the Moluccas and from there they expanded into other lands of Southeast Africa in hope that their colonies would produce profitable crops of coffee, indigo, and spices.
The Burmese and British began to clash and the Burmese constantly resisted British rule while Britain was expanding their power in Malaya. As a result, Britain had natural resources and other profits from Asian trade flowing through Singapore to profit Britain.
Southeast Asia (France, Siam)
The French began invading Vietnam after the Vietnamese started persecuting Christians, but also the French wanted more influence and markets in Southeast Asia. The overpowered French moved through Vietnam and seized a portion of southern Vietnam and in the following decades the French took over the rest of Vietnam and all of Laos and Cambodia.
The Siam kingdom laid between Burma which was ruled by Britain, and French Indochina. The king, Mongkut used his knowledge to negotiate with the Western powers and satisfy their goals in Siam by making agreements in unequal treaties. Mongkut began to modernize Siam and reformed the government and hired western experts to teach Thais how to use the new technology.
The United States and the Philippines.
- Anger fueled resistance to Spanish rule because many Filipinos accused the Church of abusing its position since the Catholic church gained enormous power and wealth.
- The opening of the Suez canal greatly affected the Philippines by making trade with European countries easier and it also allowed for some of the upper class Filipinos to gain a higher education.
- The Spanish-American War broke out after Cuba's attempt to win independence from Spain and eventually American battleships destroyed the Spanish fleet which was stationed in the Philippines.
- After the victory, rebels in Philippines declared independence from Spain and expected the Americans to recognize their independence. However, the US gave Spain 20 million dollars for the control of the Philippines.
- Parts of the Philippines contained rubber trees which was a popular resources during the time of imperialism.
Western Powers Seize the Pacific Islands
- The industrialized powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific including the three regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Whaling and sealing ships looked for bases to take on supplies in the Pacific and even missionaries moved into the region and opened the way for political involvement.
- The United States gained rights such as extraterritoriality and a naval station through an unequal treaty from Samoa. Other nations gained similar agreements and as the rivalry increased Germany, United States, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.
- Hawaii led by the Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani tried to reduce foreign influence but and then was overthrown and the planters who did asked the United States to annex Hawaii and it finally did in 1898.