Wind Turbines in the Canadian Shield

Welcome to the new way of powering your home.

What is DAHOODATURBINE

DAHOODATURBINE is selling a portion of land in the Canadian Shield near to Baie-Comeau to be used to create wind turbines. This organization focuses on environmentally friendly resources of energy, which will become more useful with climate change. In this case we have chosen wind turbines as our choice.

Climate Change

Climate change is changing the world as we know it today. As more green house gasses surround the earth, increasing the amount of protective layers from hurtful ultra violet light, more heat is trapped in our atmosphere. This happens because, when convectional heating occurs, the heat from the sun is sent back from the ground into the sky, full of evaporated moisture. When the heat rays reach 900 meters, the moisture condensates into clouds. With our increase of green house gasses, many of the heat rays which pass through our atmosphere is sent in many directions, including back to earth. This causes global warming, at which the world's average temperature increases. This has resulted with the polar caps melting leading to increase in water levels. Climate change is occurring significantly in Canada as well. As temperature continues to heat up, more soil with perma frost melt, which may lead them to becoming usable. Icebergs will melt, which may result in flooding, and many native animals which used to live in Canada, are now forced to migrate such as the tuna moving northern. New animals occasionally take their place, as more Salmon now live in the rivers where tunas used to. If climate change continues, more intense storm will become more frequent then they are now.

Wind

Wind is just a movement of air masses. They move according to change in temperature and air pressure. Air with high pressure moves to air with low pressure, the bigger the difference between both pressures, the faster the wind is. When convectional heating occurs, it is not evenly distributed everywhere due to uneven land forms. When some air is heated more than others, it rises, becoming lesser in pressure against the land. When there is not enough heat in an area, the air is colder, it sinks, becoming more in pressure. The high pressure would want to move to the low pressure, this movement of air creates wind. A usual route is from the polar caps, however as global warming continues, the polar caps would heat up reducing wind yet, wind in Canada has been not reducing. In fact, Canada will start receiving severe gusts of wind. This is because as the polar caps heat up, many local areas would be more influential than the polar caps. Because of this, Canada would receive more severe gusts, which would help the turbines generate more electricity. However, there places which are much more suitable for this, an example being Baie-Comeau, Quebec.

Location

Baie-Comeau has had winds up to 50 km/h. Compared to may other cities, it is easy to say that Baie-Comeau is extremely windy. There are many reason for it, however, one of the main reasons is the fact that it is close to both mountains ranges and a body of water. Being near water can greatly affect the temperature of land. This would lead to difference in pressure thus causing more wind. Ocean currents is also important as the heat of the body of water also depends in near water. If the water is colder than it should, it would heat up the land as much as it should have. Mountains also affects Baie-Comeau's wind, as it can either lead it or repel. It can also heat the wind or cool it down.

Near Water  

When land is near to water, the temperature is affected. Since water cools and heats slower than land, in the winter, the water would be warmer than land, and in the summer it would be cooler than land. This also influence the temperature of the land, giving them more stable conditions. Land which is further away from water usually receive unstable and extreme temperatures. As mentioned before, air masses travels when there is a difference in air pressure. In the winter the land would be warmer than other areas meaning the air near the water would also be warmer resulting in less pressure. This creates a difference  in air pressure which creates wind. In the summer, the water would be cooler than the land, meaning it would be higher in pressure. Although the air would be leaving, it will still generate wind which would power the generators.

Ocean Currents

However, this can also vary on the temperature of the water. Water absorbs most of the sun rays, even more than land does. This leads to evaporation, adding heat and moisture to the air. Some bodies of water are warmer than others which lead to a circulation of water. Much like how air moves from place to place, water does the same, as cold salt water sinks while warm salt water rises. The process of osmosis takes place as the water molecules would travel to where there are less. There are areas where the water can change its temperature. When the cold water flows by osmosis to one of the areas of heating, the cold water heats up. It then flows to area where there are not a lot of warm molecules. This continues in an endless cycle around the world.

The ocean current cycle

Mountains

Baie-Comeau 's winds are also influenced by the mountains. When passes through a mountain, the mountain will act as a barrier however, if there is an opening through the mountain range, this leads to all the air rushing through it, escaping as a massive gust. The mountains temperature also matters. Like mentioned before, convectional heating is not evenly distributed. If the mountain is warm, the wind will develops the same temperature, leading it to rise above the mountain. But if the mountain is colder, than the wind will also become cold, leading it to sink down the slope of the mountain. To determine the temperature of the mountain, we have to look at Latitude. Latitude is the distance away from the equator, north and south. Baie-Comeau has a latitude of 50°. Since Baie-Comeau is far from the equator, the mountain would usually remain cold, but would also stay fairly warm.

The Canadian Shield

Baie-Comeau is not the windiest place in Canada. There are many places which are windier however, we decided to limit our choices to the Canadian Shield. This is because most of Canada's population is in the Canadian shield. This is because of the landscape of the Canadian shield. Unlike other regions, the Canadian shield is both full of mountains and plains. This is because of the way it was created. The Canadian shield was surfaced through a lot of shifting and thrusting which resulted in a very crippled form. This combinations makes it very useful as a tourist attraction and as a living area. It also has a very flexible whether, ranging from snowy night to sunny days. The Canadian shield has a type of whether for everyone. This because of its distance from bodies of water. As you can see below the majority of the Canadian shield is far from sources of water, which leads to more extreme climates. As mentioned before, land temperature near to water is more stable as the water gives an influence of the opposite current temperature.

The Canadian Shield

Vegetation

Although the Canadian shield has some plains, the soil type for the is unsuitable for growing vegetation as the Canadian shield does not have a very thick layer of Humus and Top soil. Plants require the nutrients in the Humus and top soil to grow, but because it is so thin, it is difficult for it to grow. And since most of the plants in the Northern part of the Canadian shield are Evergreens, when their pines falls on the ground and decomposes, it gives the earth an extremely slight acid. Since there is barely enough rain to wash away this acidic dirt, it has build up to a point where plants would have a hard time growing. Another difficulty is the weather condition. Some plants require warm while other require cool temperatures. However, the Canadian shield is far from water which leads to unstable climate, both hot and cold however, not barely in between. This means farms would be hard to grow. Some areas in the north of the Canadian shield have perma frost soil. To make matters worst, as global warming continues, the perma frost melts which might lead to leaching, at which both the nutrients and the water of the soil sinks deep under ground.

Requirement

Turbines have certain requirements. Wind turbines need just the right amount of wind. Not too much and too little. Soil is also very important. If the turbine does not have the foundation, it could become extremely dangerous.

Rock Type

Turbines need a strong layer of soil in order to remain stable. Because of its very high center of gravity, it will be very easy to unbalance. Since it needs to be in an area with strong wind, the soil must be extremely strong. In many of the regions, this would be difficult however, in the Canadian shield, the soil is very dense. It also has a very high bedrock level. This rock type is called Precambrian Rock. Precambrian rock is one of the first type of rock to emerge from the ocean in North America 4.6 billion years ago. It happened near to the beginning of the formation of the earth surface. After all these years, it has become extremely dense. It is full of igneous rock such as granite and basalt and metamorphic rock such as marble. This would mean that farming and agriculture would not be so easily done in this area as vegetation requires Humus and top soil to retrieve their nutrients to grow. However this type of soil is extremely useful for growing trees due to their large roots being able to live and gather their nutrients from sub soil. Building the tall buildings is very easily done because of the relatively high bedrock which is essential for skyscrapers as they need an extremely strong and stable foundation.

Wind Speed

In order for a wind turbine to generate electricity, it needs to have wind. Wind has kinetic energy or energy of motion. When the wind turbine propellers catch the wind, the wind transfers its kinetic energy to the propellers which then lead which leads to them spinning. This energy is then transferred to to the generator. When a magnet passes near to any conductor, some electrical energy is created depending on the conductivity of the metal. The turbine spins the metal shaft which rotates around magnetic creating electricity which is then transmitted into wires, to a power house and to any where which requires electricity. The minimum speed of wind for the generator to start creating wind is 12-14 km/h. 50-60 km/h is when the generator would be working at its maximum potential. If wind speed exceed 90 km/h, the wind turbine must be stopped in order to avoid damage. In Baie-Comeau, the wind speed can reach up to 50 km/h.

Natural Disasters

Wind turbines are extremely vulnerable to ice. If they are active during an ice storm, it may destroy it. However, ice storms need a very set temperature for it to occur. It needs to be at a temperature at which the precipitation is neither snow or rain, rather something in between. This means it can easily freeze and glaze anything it lands on. It could also fit in places hail could not. When a liquid freezes, it expands, which can lead to extremely dangerous situations. Since it has to be sub zero for an ice storm to occur, it is difficult to melt leading to costly solutions. Due to climate change, ice storms are becoming much more frequent in Canada. As the world becomes warmer, Canada has entered an average temperature where ice and rain can easily mix. As heat increases, storms become more severe. To cause a storm warm air condensates and become to heavy with water. Wind carries it to Canada due to the lack of influence from the north pole, which means the whether becomes colder and when it precipitates, it would be a half rain half ice mixture.

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