Animism began in Africa. there is no Holy book and or related people. Animism's main beliefs were the worship of nature and their dead loved ones. How it affected the culture was the great respect of nature. Animism has often been a very traditional belief system for many cultures.
The religion Shintoism is located in Japan. There is no Holy book or related people. Some of their main beliefs were that the spirits of Kami exists in all things and includes their Emperor or god. They had a great respect for the natural world especially their Emperor. Kami transcends the cognitive faculty of man. Followers are able to understand Kami through faith and usually recognize various Kami in polytheistic form.
Hinduisms holy book is Vedas and they have no famous religious leaders. Some of their main beliefs were Brahman which is the universal spirit. Also, they believe in reincarnation which is being reborn into someone or something else. Hinduism had an extremely strong affect on the culture of India. In addition, the associations with reincarnation tend to guide behavior.
Buddhism's place of origin was in India and was started by a local Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama. There is no Holy text for Buddhism. One main belief was to end your suffering by ending your desires. They learned to accept what life brings to them. Some facts were Buddhism spread easily into the Southeast Asian communities and china. From there Buddhism spread to Korea and Japan.
Taoism was founded by Lao-Tse in China. The related text was the Tae Te Ching. Their main belief was to follow the way of nature. They also don't challenge the natural process and accept things as they come. Taoism also co-existed with the other ancient Chinese Philosophy Confucianism for centuries. Modern political repression, usually from the communists, has made the importance of Taoism less pubic.
Started by a man named Confucius and begun in China. The Holy text was Analects. The main belief was that all people need to accepted their role in society and had a great deal of respect for parents, elders and country. Confucianism is more directed towards mans social interactions, such as politics and society. Also the basic tenants of Confucianism became the guiding Philosophy of the Chinese culture for many generations.
Began in the Middle East by the Hebrew people. The Holy text was Torah. Their main belief was one god and god will sent a Messiah to them someday. They try to follow gods laws and the Messiah will come. After serving as exiled slaves in Egypt, the Hebrews were led by Moses to a promise land. After alternating periods of good times and bad, the Jews were eventually dispersed from their home land.
It began in the Middle East and was spread all over the world by the Roman Empire. The Holy text was the Bible. Their main belief was there was only one god and he Jesus Christ was the son of god. Also simple rules won many converts to Christianity. Jews thought that Jesus was the long awaited Messiah. After his death his disciples spread his word.
Islam started in the Middle East and by Mohammed. Their holy book is Qurian. Their main belief is follow Allah in all things above everything else. Also the religious laws are so important that they often become the political laws of out of mecca. Islam spread very quickly, due to Arab warriors and Muslims converts. The name Islam is of the religion Muslim.