Waxing: The moon anytime before a full moon and after a new moon.
Waning: the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon.
Gibbous: convex at both edges, as the moon when more than half full.
Crescent: a shape resembling a segment of a ring tapering to points at the ends.
A waxing moon and a waning moon are complete opposites.
The Lunar Cycle is a cycle of 235 synodic months, very nearly equal to 19 years, after which the new moon occurs on the same day of the year as at the beginning of the cycle with perhaps a shift of one day, depending on the number of leap years in the cycle.
Earth's Seasons & Eclipses
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center.
We have seasons because the earth is tilted as it makes its yearly journey around the sun. The Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees. This means that the Earth is always "pointing" to one side as it goes around the Sun.
Though the earth is closer to the sun in the winter, the angle at which the rays hit the earth changes due to the position of earth.The rays aren't hitting the earth's surface as directly as they would in the summer, so it isn't as warm in the winter.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle.
During the day our side of the world is facing toward the sun, during the night our side od the world is facing away from the sun.
The solstices mark the points at which the poles are tilted at their maximum toward or away from the sun.
The vernal equinox and autumnal equinox herald the beginning of spring and fall, respectively.