1. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine did which of the following?
(A) Prohibited United States intervention in the Caribbean.
(B) Warned against European seizure of the Panama Canal.
(C) Sought to end the wave of nationalization of American-owned property in the Caribbean.
(D) Declared the United States to be the “policeman” of the Western Hemisphere.
(E) Provided United States military support for democratic revolutions in Latin America.
2. The purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was to
A. justify the seizure of Panama in order to build a canal across it.
B. extend the Monroe Doctrine to America’s new holdings in the Pacific.
C. set up arbitration panels to settle disputes involving advanced nations.
D. prevent European nations from intervening in countries in the Western Hemisphere even if they had just cause.
Answers to the Above Multiple Choice Questions:
“Carry a Big Stick”: Roosevelt, Taft, and World Affairs
A. Taking Panama
1. U.S. diplomats had pursued efforts to build, control, and protect a canal and considered Nicaragua and Panama (part of Colombia) as possible sites.
a) Negotiations with Colombia bogged down, and Roosevelt supported the Panamanian Revolution against Colombia.
b) The revolution quickly succeeded, Panama declared its independence, and the United States immediately extended diplomatic recognition.
2. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1904) granted the United States perpetual control over a strip of territory 10 miles wide and paid Panama $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000.
a) Building a canal proved difficult, and it was not completed until 1914.
B. Making the Caribbean an American Lake
1. Roosevelt was determined to establish American dominance in Central America and issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
a) This corollary warned European nations against any intervention in the Western Hemisphere.
2. Roosevelt acted forcefully to establish his new policy.
a) U.S. troops were sent to the Dominican Republic in 1905 to oversee the customhouses and duties collections, making it the third American protectorate.
b) Taft and Wilson continued to expand Roosevelt’s policy.
C. Roosevelt and Eastern Asia
1. Roosevelt built on the Open Door notes and American participation against the Boxers.
2. Roosevelt helped negotiate the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905), which recognized Japan’s dominance in Korea and gave Japan Russian concession in southern Manchuria.
3. His Gentleman’s Agreement (1907) limited Japanese immigration to the United States.
D. The United States and the World: 1901-1913
1. Before the 1890s, the United States had no clear or consistent foreign policy.
2. By the turn of the century, U.S. commitments were obvious to all.
a) Its modern navy was central to the concept of the United States as a world power since without it, other commitments lacked anything more than moral force.
b) America’s new vision divided the world into “civilized” and “barbarous” nations.
c) U.S. relations with Britain improved, primarily due to British policy choices.