Treaty of Paris ends The French and Indian war

the seven year war...

The French and Indian war ended with the signing of the treaty of Paris by France,Great Britain,and Spain.It all started when the British declared war against France in 1756.In the 1750's, Britain and France had colonies in North America. The British wanted to settle in the Ohio River Valley and to trade with the Native Americans who lived there. The French built forts to protect their trade with the Indians. In 1754, George Washington led an army against the French. He was defeated.Britain declared war on France. The war for control of the valley was called the French and Indian War. Most American Indians in the region were allies of the French. The American Indians liked the French because they traded but did not settle on the land.In 1754, a congress of the British colonies met in Albany,New York. Benjamin Franklin thought the colonies should work together to defeat France. Each colony would still haveits own government. They would also create one government together to decide important issues. His idea was called the Albany Plan of Union. The colonists rejected it. They did not want to join together under one government. In 1763, Britain and France ended the war and signed the Treaty of Paris. France gave Britain control of Canada and most of the land east of the Mississippi River.

proclamation of 1763
king george iii

The proclamation of 1763 was issued on October 7,1763 by king George III by great Britain king George III created the proclamation because great Britain's acquisition of french territory in north america and the ending of the French and Indian war.The proclamation line/border ran west of the appalachian moutains and south of hudson bay to florida.the proclamation prohibited settlement by whites on land in the ‘indian reserve”

sugar act


The Sugar Act, properly known as the American Revenue Act, was enacted by Parliament on April 5, 1764. The goal of the act was to raise revenue to help defray the military costs of protecting the American colonies at a time Great Britain's economy was saddled with the huge national debt accumulated during the French and Indian War (aka Seven Years War). The focus of the Sugar Act was to discourage colonial merchants and manufacturers from smuggling non-British goods to avoid taxes imposed by Parliament. The Sugar Act successfully reduced smuggling, but it greatly disrupted the economy of the American colonies by increasing the cost of many imported items, and reducing exports to non-British markets. As a result, Americans protested the Sugar Act primarily because of its economic impact, but for some "no taxation without representation" became a rallying cry against Parliament's right to tax the colonies.

stamp act

On March 22, 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act, requiring that stamps be purchased and placed on all legal documents and printed materials in the American colonies. To Parliament's great surprise.outraged Americans responded angrily with legislative protests and street violence. June 8, 1765, the Massachusetts Assembly sent a circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies inviting them to send delegates to a congress in New York to "consult together on the present circumstances of the colonies". From October 7 through October 25, 1765, delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies met in New York to discuss a unified colonial response to the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act Congress drafted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances on October 19. which stated among other things that 1) only the colonial assemblies had a right to tax the colonies, 2) trial by jury was a right, and the use of Admiralty Courts was abusive 3) colonists possessed all the Rights of Englishmen, and 4) without voting rights, Parliament could not represent the colonists. The Stamp Act Congress was a significant historical event because it was the first unified meeting of the American colonies to respond to British colonial policies.

boston massacre

  • The Massacre occurred on the evening of March 5, 1770.5 civilians died as a result of the incident, 3 died on the scene and 2 died later. All victims of the Massacre were Criptus Attucks, Samuel Gray, James Caldwell, Samuel Maverick and Patrick Carr, they were buried at Granary Burying Ground in Boston.There were two separate Boston Massacre trials. The trail of captain Preston tarted almost 8 month after the incident and lasted for one week, from October 24, 1770 to October 30, 1770. The second trial was for the soldiers. It started almost one month after Preston’s aquital, on November 27, 1770 and ended on Dec 14, 1770.9 British regulars were charged during the B.M. trials. Preston and six of his men were acquitted, two others were found guilty of manslaughter.The heavy military presence in Boston that lead to the Massacre was the result of British enforcement of the Townshend Acts of 1767.4,000 troops were sent  to Boston in October of 1768—not a small number, considering that Boston’s population was only about 20,000 residents at the time.The three years that followed the Massacre, from 1770 to 1772 passed rather quietly without any major confrontation between the British and the colonists.Before the “The Boston Massacre” name became common, the incident was also called The Bloody Massacre in King Street, from the title of the famous Paul revere engraving. In the early 1800's it was also called the State Street Massacre.

tea act

1773 Act that gave a monopoly on tea sales to the East India Company. In other words, American colonists could buy no tea unless it came from that company. Why? Well, the East Indian Company wasn't doing so well, and the British wanted to give it some more business. The Tea Act lowered the price on this East India tea so much that it was way below tea from other suppliers. But the American colonists saw this law as yet another means of "taxation without representation" because it meant that they couldn't buy tea from anyone else (including other colonial merchants) without spending a lot more money. Their response was to refuse to unload the tea from the ships. This was the situation in Boston that led to the Boston Tea Party.

boston tea party

The Boston Tea Party took place on Thursday December 16, 1773. The Boston Tea Party followed another Pre-revolutionary incident called the Boston Massacre that occurred on March 5, 1770. In 1768, colonists consumed almost two million pounds of tea - The 3 million inhabitants of the American colonies were consuming an average of 2-3 cups every day
90% of the tea drunk in the colonies was smuggled in. The American tradition of drinking coffee increased as British tea was subject to boycotts
The Boston Tea Party was a direct protest by colonists, members of the the Sons of Liberty, against the tea tax that had been imposed by the British government.
The new import tax on tea of 3 pence was considerably less than the previous one in which 12 pence (1 shilling) per pound on tea sent via Britain. The American colonists would therefore get their tea cheaper than the people of Britain
Rebellion against the tea tax was not a result of a raise in the tax, the tax was actually lowered - the protests were because there were no colonists in the English parliament which led to the cry of "No taxation without representation!" in the American colonies.
The Tea tax protests resulted in the smuggling of cheaper, non-British tea and boycotts of British tea
Tea was to be marketed in America by special consignees (receivers of shipments) who were to be selected by the East India Company.Only ships owned by the East India Company could carry tea.

intolerable acts

the intolerable acts were Series of laws sponsored by British Prime Minister Lord North and enacted in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. The laws were Impartial Administration of Justice Acts,which allowed the royal governor of a colony to move trials to other colonies or even to England if he feared that juries in those colonies wouldn't judge a case fairly.Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act, which made all law officers subject to appointment by  the royal governor and banned all town meetings that didn't have approval of the royal governor.Boston Port Act,which closed the port of Boston until the price of the dumped tea was recovered, moved the capital of Massachusetts to Salem, and made Marble head the official port of entry for the Massachusetts colony. Quartering Act,which allowed royal troops to stay in houses or empty buildings if barracks were not available and last but not least The Quebec Act, which granted civil government and religious freedom to Catholics living in Quebec.

Lexington and concord

First shots fired between American and British troops, on April 19, 1775. The British chose to march to Concord because it was an arms depot. This meant that the Americans had stockpiled weapons there. British troops had occupied Boston and were marching on Concord as they passed through Lexington. No one is still sure who fired first, but it was the "Shot Heard 'Round the World." Both sides opened fire, and the Americans were forced to withdraw. But they had slowed the British advance. By the time the Redcoats got to Concord, the Americans were waiting for them in force. The weapons depot was saved, and the British were forced to retreat, harassed by militiamen along the way. The skirmishes were preceded by Paul Revere's famous ride, warning the countryside: "The British are Coming!"

second continental congress meets georgia's representatives to the meeting

As the name suggests, the Intolerable Acts were not received well amongst the colonies. Before the shots were fired at Lexington and Concord, the colonies made an attempt to settle the concerns and frustrations raised with the Intolerable Acts through debate and discussion. Thus, the First Continental Congress was called to order on September 5th, 1774. 55 colonial representatives, including famous Patriots like John Adams, Samuel Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry, from twelve colonies met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to formulate a plan of action. Georgia was the only colony that did not send representatives. Virginia’s representative, Peyton Randolph, was elected president of the First Continental Congress. It was decided that each colony would be allotted one secret ballot.

the declaration of independence was adopted

Drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 became the defining event in Thomas Jefferson's life. Despite Jefferson's desire to return to Virginia to help write that state's constitution, the Continental Congress appointed him to the five-person committee for drafting a declaration of independence. That committee subsequently assigned him the task of producing a draft document for its consideration. Drawing on documents, such as the Virginia Declaration of Rights, state and local calls for independence, and his own draft of a Virginia constitution, Jefferson wrote a stunning statement of the colonists' right to rebel against the British government and establish their own based on the premise that all men are created equal and have the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Through the many revisions made by Jefferson, the committee, and then by Congress, Jefferson retained his prominent role in writing the defining document of the American Revolution and, indeed, of the United States. Jefferson was critical of changes to the document, particularly the removal of a long paragraph that attributed responsibility of the slave trade to British King George III. Jefferson was justly proud of his role in writing the Declaration of Independence and skillfully defended his authorship of this hallowed document.

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