Properties of Matter for Select Elements

by: Julia Kreiser


Gold

Gold is a very dense element. It has a density of 19.3 g/cm cubed.

It has a melting/freezing point of 1064.18 degrees Celsius.

Gold is widely used for jewelry and electrical circuitry.

An interesting fact about gold is that about 2/3 of the world's gold comes from South Africa.


Aluminum

Aluminum has a density of 2.699 g/cm cubed

It has a melting/freezing point of 660.323 degrees Celsius

Aluminum is commonly used as aluminum foil, as well as for aircraft fuselage.

An interesting fact about aluminum is that it is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust.(8.1%)


Helium

The density of helium is 0.0002 g/cm cubed

It has a melting/freezing point of -272.2 degrees Celsius

Helium is commonly used as an inert gas shield for arc welding, and recently it is being largely used for pressuring liquid fuel rockets.

An interesting fact about helium is that when an electric current flows through it, helium glows pale peach. Ordinarily, helium is colorless.

Yttrium

Yttrium has a density of 4.5 g/cm cubed.

It has a melting/freezing point of 1522 degrees Celsius.

The largest use of yttrium is in the form of yttrium oxide, which is used to produce phosphor which give the red color in television tubes. Yttrium is also used in the making of microwave filters.

An interesting fact about yttrium is that it was discovered in 1794 by a Finnish chemist, J. Gadolin, in a quarry near the small town of Ytterby. The town of Ytterby is where Yttrium got its name.

Selenium

The density of selenium is 4.285 g/cm cubed

It has a melting/freezing point of 220.8 degrees Celsius

Selenium has both a photovoltaic action(converts light to electricity) and photoconductive action(electrical resistance decreases with increased illumination. Therefore it is useful in photocells and solar cells.

An interesting fact about selenium is that it was discovered in 1817. It is closely related to tellurium, which is named for the earth. Therefore, the person who discovered Selenium named it after the moon.

Manganese

The density of manganese is 7.43 g/cm cubed

It has a melting/freezing point of 1246 degrees Celsius

Manganese is used to form many important alloys. It is also used in manganese oxide, which is a depolariser in dry cells.

An interesting fact about Manganese is that the human body contains about 12 milligrams of manganese. Without it, bones are spongier and can break more easily.

From Lowest to Highest

From lowest to highest, helium has the least amount of density, then aluminum, selenium, yttrium, manganese, and, with the greatest density, gold.

From lowest to highest, helium has the lowest melting point, then selenium, aluminum, gold, manganese, and, with the highest melting point, yttrium.

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