Sulamita G.

Waxing : The moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

Waning: The moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is decreasing.

: More than half but less than fully illuminated from the point of view of an observer.

     Crescent: The figure of the moon in its first or last quarter, resembling a segment of a ring tapering to points at the ends.

     As the moon is waxing, it gets fuller-more illuminate-from the right to the left. The moon starts very thin and then slowly gets working its way to get thicker, finely into a full moon.
    As the moon is waning, it shrinks-losing its illumination-going from left to right. When the moon is waning it is slowly getting from thicker to thinner, and then slowly fading as it the moon was never there.

lunar cycles
The lunar phase or phase of the moon is the shape of the illuminated (sunlit) portion of the Moon as seen by an observer on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth. The moon's phase repeats on average every 29.53 days.

Earths Seasons/ Eclipses  

Equinox: Is the time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).

Solstice: either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.

Nicolai Copernicus was a man in (1473-1543) who changed our understanding of astronomy, that the sun is in the center of the solar system not the earth. This then interested us in the relationship of the sun and the earth.

We have seasons because Earth orbits the sun elliptically and, at the same time, spins on an axis that is tilted relative to its plane of orbit. The different hemispheres are exposed to different amounts of sunlight throughout the year. The sun is our source of light, heat and energy,  the changing  and concentration of its rays.

In winter, the sun is closer to Earth because the density of the solar radiation is higher because it's coming from directly overhead in simpler words the sun's rays are concentrated over a smaller surface area.

There’s not an eclipse at every new and full moon, but there are from four to seven eclipses every year. Some are lunar, some are solar, some are total, and some are partial.

We have day and night because the Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars. Its central axis is aligned with two stars. The northern axis points outward to Polaris, hence why it is called “the North Star”, while its southern axis points to Sigma Octantis.

Plate Tectonics  

Alfred Wegener is born on November 1, 1880, and died on 1930. As a germen polar researcher he introduced the pangaea: meaning "all lands". He was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research   

Convergent: Coming closer together, especially in characteristics or ideas.

Divergent: Means its tending to be different or develop in different directions

Transform boundary: (Or conservative boundary) is where two of the floats - two tectonic plates - side alongside each other.

The Juan de Fuca plate is just off the west coast of Washington State.

A divergent plate boundary made up of a series of breaks in the oceanic crust where new ocean crust is created On one side of the spreading ridge new Pacific Plate crust is made, then moves away from the ridge. On the other side of the spreading ridge the Juan de Fuca Plate and Gorda Plate move eastward. There are some unusual features at the Cascade subduction zone. Where the Juan de Fuca Plate sinks beneath the North American Plate there is no deep trench, seismicity (earthquakes) are fewer than expected, and there is evidence of a decline in volcanic activity over the past few million years.

The plates move by the magma because convection currents move it.    

A rift zone is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.
A subduction zone is the biggest smash-up on Earth, marking the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates, the pieces of crust that slowly move across the surface over millions of years.

                                  "Channeled Scablands"
        The Channeled Scablands are a barren, relatively soil-free landscape in eastern Washington, scoured clean by a flood unleashed when a large glacial lake drained. They are a geologically unique erosional feature in the U.S. state of Washington

Rocks and Rolls

Sedimentary: Are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
The classic sedimentary rocks such as breccias, conglomerate, sandstone and shale, that are formed from mechanical weathering debris

Metamorphic: Rocks that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase
The foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, Phyllis, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure

Stratification: Is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories. Stratification is used to describe a particular way of arranging seeds while planting, as well as the geological layers of rocks.

         Scientists combine several well-tested techniques to find out the ages of fossils. The most important are Relative Dating, in which fossils and layers of rock are placed in order from older to younger, and Radiometric Dating, which allows the actual ages of certain types of rock to be calculated.

Things that could have happen to form layers is water, volcanoes, lava, weather and etc.. Living organisms shape landforms by eating digging and crawling around, and digging all those roots,