Ancient Egypt

Maria Costanzo


The Nile River provided natural irrigation and fertilization. The Nile River ran up through narrow valleys between steep hills. It was more than 4,100 miles long and flows south to north. It is the longest river in the world, flowing through eastern Africa to a delta in north eastern Egypt.

Stable Food Supply

The Egyptians had bread, fruits, vegetables, lamb, and goats. They had clay ovens to cook their food. Their dishes were made out of clay and they drank beer made from barley. The farmers grew wheat for bread, barley for beer, and flax to make linen. The also grew onions and cucumbers. The peasants worked the land giving Egyptians a steady food supply.


Priests were powerful and respected. They served under the pharaohs. The women could be priestesses. They stored the dead bodies into sarcophagus. They took out the bodies organs, such as the brain, lungs, and liver. They left the heart because they believed that the gods used the heart to judge a dead persons soul. They put loves of bread and other items they though they would need in the afterlife. There are 2000 gods and goddesses in Egypt, some of them are Anubis, Ra, Horus, and Osiris. Anubis protected the dead and was known as a wild dog. Ra was god of creation and created the world and the rising sun symbol. Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis and believed to give power to each pharaoh. Osiris was shown as a human being and the god of the underworld.

Social Structure

The Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid. The classes near the top of the pyramid had fewer people and enjoyed higher status. The classes near the bottom had greater numbers but lower status. The upper-class women had servants and slaves to do their work for them. The lower-class women had to do all of the work by themselves.

The Arts

Most artisans were men. Some women wove fabric, beaded clothing, and made perfume. Most skilled artisans were the stone carvers. They made statues, engravings, and reliefs found in Egyptian temples, tombs, and monuments.


The Ancient Egyptian Government was ruled by the pharaoh. The primary leader of government under the pharaoh was the Vizier. The wives of the pharaohs were the second powerful people in the land after the pharaohs. The Citizens had to pay taxes to support the government.


They had a wide variety of medicines and cures. They also used whole cooked mouse to help cure coughs. Medicines were spells to ward off the evil spirits making the person sick. They built small boats with papyrus reeds. They also built large ships from ceder wood imported from Lebanon. The writing allowed them to keep accurate records and maintain control of their large empire.

Written Language

The Hieroglyphics could be written from any direction, left,right right,left or even top to bottom. There are no vowel sounds and no punctuation, there are only consonants. When the Greek took over Egypt, many of the scribes had to learn Greek written language as well. The scribes used faster and or shorter forms of Hieroglyphics on papyrus called Hieratic.

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