Digital DBQ from 1997-2015
- The Apple History Channel
- Macworld Boston 1997-The Microsoft Deal/Recordings/Work, Exchange & Technology/year of birth (1997)
- Steve Jobs during 1997 when Microsoft became the most valuable company at $261 billion dollars. The intended audience is the people of the world and the people working for his company. The purpose is to inform them on the new deal made with Microsoft in order to show them his attempts to make money. Jobs believes that he's making money, but in reality he's losing money and this is why the crowd disagrees with what he's doing.
- The source reflects the thematic objective because it shows how technology changed and further to advance throughout the years. It also has to do with work because when Jobs loses money, some of his workers will have to be unemployed because he can't pay for them. Historians will find this source significant because it shows the continuity of how Microsoft is such a valuable company today. This company being successful, is what made Bill Gates the most rich man in the world.
12 September 2001: America under attack The Guardian leader page on 9/11
Hijacked United Airlines flight 175 flies into the South Tower of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Photograph: Rob Howard/CorbisThe Guardian's front page, 12 September 2001Leader: The sum of all our fears
Even in its agony, America must stay cool
The United States was plunged into a state of war yesterday by an enemy it could not see. Unlike other conflicts in which the US has engaged, there were no klaxons this time, no air raid sirens, no open declaration of hostilities, no ultimatum, nor any prior expression of intent.
This was no mere car bombing, no sneak attack on a US warship or embassy, nor a lone gunman's targeting of an American diplomat or businessman. Yesterday's offensive was simply unparalleled. It came, without a trace of a warning, on multiple targets chosen for their paramount symbolic value, and was clearly, pitilessly designed to cause the maximum damage, the highest possible number of casualties, and the greatest achievable degree of terror.
Even the sailors of the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbour in 1941 discovered, too late, who was attacking them. When they realised what was happening, they knew why. And they knew what they had to do in response. A chief part of the horror of yesterday's truly appalling, awesome events was the lack of a face or a name, the lack of meaning - the lack of reason. But terrorism has never been a rational activity. It is by definition a negation of humanity, the opposite of life, sense, and sensibility.
It is, as the US secretary of state, Colin Powell, said in a speech last April, "a persistent disease". To those many, still unknown numbers of Americans who died yesterday, to those who were injured, and to those who will suffer the consequences of this mass murder for the rest of their lives, we offer our deep sympathy. To those who carried out these cowardly attacks, we offer only our contempt - and the heartfelt conviction that Britain and the British people, no strangers to terrorist outrages, will do all in their power to assist the American government in finding those who are responsible. The United States, its government, and its people did not deserve this. For this day of carnage and tears there can be no justification or excuse.
It was, as the sequence of horror first began to unfold across New York's skyline, initially unbelievable. As if in some far-fetched Hollywood disaster movie, reports came in of an explosion at the World Trade Centre, possibly caused by a plane. Then, as the cameras arrived and the live television commentary began, another plane seemed to come from nowhere. "The second plane curved in from the west and appeared to aim straight at the second tower and hit it just below the level of the first impact... it was being aimed deliberately at the target," said one reporter at the scene.
Suddenly, a fireball erupted from the second tower and both skyscrapers were on fire. People jumped from the burning upper floors, driven to their deaths by excoriating flames. As each person fell, a great, screaming wail went up from those below. But this, it transpired, was just the beginning.
Within minutes, the Pentagon in Washington was on fire. Another hijacked plane had plunged straight at it. Some reports said defence chiefs had been alerted that the aircraft was heading their way. But even the most powerful military in the world could do nothing to stop it. Soon after that, a bomb exploded at the State Department, and full-scale evacuations were under way at the White House, Treasury, and other buildings in the heartland of America's federal government.
The airline system was shut down, cities from Chicago to Los Angeles to Miami went on full-scale alert, and normal business from Wall Street downwards came to a halt. Even that greatest of all American symbols, the presidency - embodied at this moment by George Bush - seemed shaken, unnerved, and at a loss for words.
Far from being a Hollywood director's fantasy, it was all horribly real. It was indeed the sum of all fears. As emergency services in New York scrambled across Manhattan, debris from the wounded towers created a new hazard. Panic swept the streets as people struggled to clear the area. And with good reason. One after the other, with a dread inevitability, the World Trade Centre 'scrapers toppled and crashed to the ground. What the renegade Saudi millionaire terrorist, Osama bin Laden, and his fanatical Islamic fundamentalist followers had tried to do in February, 1993, had now finally been achieved. If ever the world needed a symbol of the potency of the threat that confronts us all, here it was as frightful actuality.
That moment of collapse will be remembered for years to come, as the moment when international terrorism became, without question, the primary menace to global security. If these men of blood can reach out into America's front yard and wreak desperate havoc with such apparent impunity, then who among us is safe?
That is merely one of the many questions that now come to the fore with an urgency borne of grief and a rising tide of anger. Another is whether the US government could have prevented the attacks.
It is not as though it was unaware of the problem; it is not a question of complacency. The State Department has long charted and plotted the numerous terrorist groups that inhabit all corners of the globe, from Northern Ireland to the Philippines, and which could (in theory) mount attacks against the US at home. It publishes annually a list of "state sponsors" of terrorism which includes countries such as Iraq, Iran, Libya and Sudan but also, in recent years, Afghanistan, Bin Laden's adopted home.
Last May, Mr Bush placed his vice- president, Dick Cheney, in personal charge of counter-terrorism efforts in the US mainland and created a new national agency, the National Preparedness Office, to coordinate federal emergency responses and intelligence-gathering. The FBI, the CIA, the Pentagon's Defence Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency already command vast budgets and deploy enormous resources to keep track of potential threats. But yesterday, none of this worked. There was not a sniff of what was coming, not a hope in hell. Not a single fighter was scrambled as the hijacked planes loomed, it seems; not a bomber was seen, let alone caught. Once again, the lesson was clear. Suicidal terrorism against civilian targets is all but unstoppable, whether you are an Afghan resistance fighter such as Ahmad Shah Masood, an Israeli policeman, or the most powerful country in the world.
That is not to say that terrorism cannot be curbed, or that its perpetrators cannot be found and punished. The next, perhaps biggest question, even as the New York ruins are combed and sifted for signs of unextinguished life, is who?
Mr Masood is relevant to this inquiry, being himself a recent, probable victim of the Bin Laden terror network and its Taliban and Arab supporters. Three weeks ago, Bin Laden boasted that he was planning to attack American interests in a supposedly "unprecedented" manner. Such threats have been made before. And others yesterday were named as possible suspects, including the militants of Islamic Jihad, one of Israel's principal tormentors. But Bin Laden has the track record.
He has attacked on US territory before - the 1993 Trade Centre bombing. His attacks on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 were bloody in the extreme; hundreds died. He is widely believed to have organised the attack last year on the USS Cole, an American warship visiting Yemen. Bin Laden has long been regarded by the Americans as their most powerful, non-state opponent. He has the cash, he has the resources, and he has the sort of blind ruthlessness and self-righteousness that is required for such inhumanity. And if Bin Laden is the most likely suspect, that, in a perverse sort of way, may be a blessing in disguise.
The thought that Saddam Hussein's Iraq, or another "rogue state", were behind the attacks is indeed chilling. That, if proven, could provoke a full-scale American war of reprisal with consequences that would be truly worldwide. Another mercy, on a day of little compassion, is the fact that neither chemical nor biological weapons were used in New York or Washington. They might have been and, it has to be said, Mr Bush's flagship defence plan - national missile defence - would have been powerless to stop it. Effective, worldwide curbs on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of conventional weapons, including small arms, is something to which the Bush White House must now pay much more attention.
The hurt that all Americans must feel today cannot be underestimated. Two immediate dangers arise. One is that, wounded, bewildered, and convinced that the world is its enemy, America will draw back into itself. Too often in recent months, the US has seemed at odds with its friends and partners on a range of issues, big and small. But an even greater unilateralism, even a growing siege mentality, is to be avoided at all costs. It would be a victory for the terrorists.
Likewise, American over-reaction, especially of the military variety, must be guarded against. The temptation right now is to make somebody pay. And pay... and pay... and pay. Take a deep breath, America. Keep cool. And keep control.
- The Guardian
- September 12, 2001
- A Declaration of War/Texts/America in the world/2001
- This was in 2001 when we were attacked and other religions from different places didn't like what we were doing over here in the USA. The intended audience is the people of the United States. The purpose is to keep them under control and keep calm the people of the country, to let them know that they'll pay whoever did this back. The Guardians are pro-counterattack against whoever did this to our country.
- This reflects the theme of America in the World because we were attacked based off of what people in other countries felt about the way we ran things in the USA. It was a terrorist attack from someone outside of the country on the other side of the world. They'll find this significant because this is one of the only times America has been attacked inside America and so many people were killed. There were so many casualties during this great attack from a terrorist group.
- Ted Rall
- George W. Bush Presidential Library/visual material/politics and power/2007
- This was in 2007 after 9/11 so there was a lot of private torture of terrorist or people that seemed like they were terrorist in Guantanamo Bay and they kept it quiet from America citizens. The intended audience is the American citizens. The purpose is to show them that the government is hiding things from us and we should know what's going on. The point of view of Rall is that this is wrong and that people should know.
- This is Politics and Power because this shows how much power the government has to hide what they want. Bush even tried to hide this from the American citizens. Historians would find this document significant because it shows how the government was so secretive with citizens of their own country. President Bush was extremely sneaky with some of the stuff during this time period.
Inaugural Address by President Barack ObamaUnited States Capitol
11:55 A.M. EST THE PRESIDENT: Vice President Biden, Mr. Chief Justice,members of the United States Congress, distinguished guests, and fellow citizens:
Each time we gather to inaugurate a President we bear witness to the enduring strength of our Constitution. We affirm the promise of our democracy. We recall that what binds this nation together is not the colors of our skin or the tenets of our faith or the origins of our names. What makes us exceptional -- what makes us American -- is our allegiance to an idea articulated in a declaration made more than two centuries ago:“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Today we continue a never-ending journey to bridge the meaning of those words with the realities of our time. For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they’ve never been self-executing; that while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by His people here on Earth. (Applause.) The patriots of 1776 did not fight to replace the tyranny of a king with the privileges of a few or the rule of a mob. They gave to us a republic, a government of, and by, and for the people, entrusting each generation to keep safe our founding creed. And for more than two hundred years, we have. Through blood drawn by lash and blood drawn by sword, we learned that no union founded on the principles of liberty and equality could survive half-slave and half-free. We made ourselves anew, and vowed to move forward together. Together, we determined that a modern economy requires railroads and highways to speed travel and commerce, schools and colleges to train our workers. Together, we discovered that a free market only thrives when there are rules to ensure competition and fair play. Together, we resolved that a great nation must care for the vulnerable, and protect its people from life’s worst hazards and misfortune. Through it all, we have never relinquished our skepticism of central authority, nor have we succumbed to the fiction that all society’s ills can be cured through government alone. Our celebration of initiative and enterprise, our insistence on hard work and personal responsibility, these are constants in our character. But we have always understood that when times change, so must we; that fidelity to our founding principles requires new responses to new challenges; that preserving our individual freedoms ultimately requires collective action. For the American people can no more meet the demands of today’s world by acting alone than American soldiers could have met the forces of fascism or communism with muskets and militias. No single person can train all the math and science teachers we’ll need to equip our children for the future, or build the roads and networks and research labs that will bring new jobs and businesses to our shores. Now, more than ever, we must do these things together, as one nation and one people. (Applause.) This generation of Americans has been tested by crises that steeled our resolve and proved our resilience. A decade of war is now ending. (Applause.) An economic recovery has begun. (Applause.) America’s possibilities are limitless, for we possess all the qualities that this world without boundaries demands: youth and drive; diversity and openness; an endless capacity for risk and a gift for reinvention. My fellow Americans, we are made for this moment, and we will seize it -- so long as we seize it together. (Applause.) For we, the people, understand that our country cannot succeed when a shrinking few do very well and a growing many barely make it. (Applause.) We believe that America’s prosperity must rest upon the broad shoulders of a rising middle class. We know that America thrives when every person can find independence and pride in their work; when the wages of honest labor liberate families from the brink of hardship. We are true to our creed when a little girl born into the bleakest poverty knows that she has the same chance to succeed as anybody else, because she is an American; she is free, and she is equal, not just in the eyes of God but also in our own. (Applause.) We understand that outworn programs are inadequate to the needs of our time. So we must harness new ideas and technology to remake our government, revamp our tax code, reform our schools, and empower our citizens with the skills they need to work harder, learn more, reach higher. But while the means will change, our purpose endures: a nation that rewards the effort and determination of every single American. That is what this moment requires. That is what will give real meaning to our creed. We, the people, still believe that every citizen deserves a basic measure of security and dignity. We must make the hard choices to reduce the cost of health care and the size of our deficit. But we reject the belief that America must choose between caring for the generation that built this country and investing in the generation that will build its future. (Applause.) For we remember the lessons of our past, when twilight years were spent in poverty and parents of a child with a disability had nowhere to turn. We do not believe that in this country freedom is reserved for the lucky, or happiness for the few. We recognize that no matter how responsibly we live our lives, any one of us at any time may face a job loss, or a sudden illness, or a home swept away in a terrible storm. The commitments we make to each other through Medicare and Medicaid and Social Security, these things do not sap our initiative, they strengthen us. (Applause.) They do not make us a nation of takers; they free us to take the risks that make this country great. (Applause.) We, the people, still believe that our obligations as Americans are not just to ourselves, but to all posterity. We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations. (Applause.) Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires and crippling drought and more powerful storms. The path towards sustainable energy sources will be long and sometimes difficult. But America cannot resist this transition, we must lead it. We cannot cede to other nations the technology that will power new jobs and new industries, we must claim its promise. That’s how we will maintain our economic vitality and our national treasure -- our forests and waterways, our crop lands and snow-capped peaks. That is how we will preserve our planet, commanded to our care by God. That’s what will lend meaning to the creed our fathers once declared. We, the people, still believe that enduring security and lasting peace do not require perpetual war. (Applause.) Our brave men and women in uniform, tempered by the flames of battle, are unmatched in skill and courage. (Applause.) Our citizens, seared by the memory of those we have lost, know too well the price that is paid for liberty. The knowledge of their sacrifice will keep us forever vigilant against those who would do us harm. But we are also heirs to those who won the peace and not just the war; who turned sworn enemies into the surest of friends -- and we must carry those lessons into this time as well. We will defend our people and uphold our values through strength of arms and rule of law. We will show the courage to try and resolve our differences with other nations peacefully –- not because we are naïve about the dangers we face, but because engagement can more durably lift suspicion and fear. (Applause.) America will remain the anchor of strong alliances in every corner of the globe. And we will renew those institutions that extend our capacity to manage crisis abroad, for no one has a greater stake in a peaceful world than its most powerful nation. We will support democracy from Asia to Africa, from the Americas to the Middle East, because our interests and our conscience compel us to act on behalf of those who long for freedom. And we must be a source of hope to the poor, the sick, the marginalized, the victims of prejudice –- not out of mere charity, but because peace in our time requires the constant advance of those principles that our common creed describes: tolerance and opportunity, human dignity and justice. We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths –- that all of us are created equal –- is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great Mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth. (Applause.) It is now our generation’s task to carry on what those pioneers began. For our journey is not complete until our wives, our mothers and daughters can earn a living equal to their efforts. (Applause.) Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law –- (applause) -- for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well. (Applause.) Our journey is not complete until no citizen is forced to wait for hours to exercise the right to vote. (Applause.) Our journey is not complete until we find a better way to welcome the striving, hopeful immigrants who still see America as a land of opportunity -- (applause) -- until bright young students and engineers are enlisted in our workforce rather than expelled from our country. (Applause.) Our journey is not complete until all our children, from the streets of Detroit to the hills of Appalachia, to the quiet lanes of Newtown, know that they are cared for and cherished and always safe from harm. That is our generation’s task -- to make these words, these rights, these values of life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness real for every American. Being true to our founding documents does not require us to agree on every contour of life. It does not mean we all define liberty in exactly the same way or follow the same precise path to happiness. Progress does not compel us to settle centuries-long debates about the role of government for all time, but it does require us to act in our time. (Applause.) For now decisions are upon us and we cannot afford delay. We cannot mistake absolutism for principle, or substitute spectacle for politics, or treat name-calling as reasoned debate. (Applause.) We must act, knowing that our work will be imperfect. We must act, knowing that today’s victories will be only partial and that it will be up to those who stand here in four years and 40 years and 400 years hence to advance the timeless spirit once conferred to us in a spare Philadelphia hall. My fellow Americans, the oath I have sworn before you today, like the one recited by others who serve in this Capitol, was an oath to God and country, not party or faction. And we must faithfully execute that pledge during the duration of our service. But the words I spoke today are not so different from the oath that is taken each time a soldier signs up for duty or an immigrant realizes her dream. My oath is not so different from the pledge we all make to the flag that waves above and that fills our hearts with pride. They are the words of citizens and they represent our greatest hope. You and I, as citizens, have the power to set this country’s course. You and I, as citizens, have the obligation to shape the debates of our time -- not only with the votes we cast, but with the voices we lift in defense of our most ancient values and enduring ideals. (Applause.) Let us, each of us, now embrace with solemn duty and awesome joy what is our lasting birthright. With common effort and common purpose, with passion and dedication, let us answer the call of history and carry into an uncertain future that precious light of freedom. Thank you. God bless you, and may He forever bless these United States of America. (Applause.)
END12:10 P.M. EST
- Borack Obama
- January 20, 2009
- Inaugural Address by President Barack Obama/Manuscripts and Archival Material/Politics and Power/2009
- This was in 2000's and ever since before there has never been an African American President at all. The intended audience was the United States' citizens. The purpose was to introduce the new president to the citizens. The point of view was to pro-himself to run the country.
- This source shows that we took another step into our constitution. Obama won the presidential debate against another runner up so this has to do with politics. This source would be significant because it is the inaugural speech of the very first African American president. This is what I meant by taking a huge step into our constitution because this has never been done before.
- William Fisher
- May 22, 2009
- Obama defends Guantanamo closure, Cheney defends torture/visual materials/America in the world/2009
- This was when Guantanamo was used to hold terrorists or suspected terrorists. Obama also just got elected to be the president of the United States. The intended audience was the citizens of the USA to show that Obama is against Guantanamo Bay. The purpose is to show that he's against the torture of the terrorists. The point of view of the author is to show that Obama is against the torture.
- This reflects America in the World because it discusses what is done about the terrorist problem in America. It shows that they were tortured and Obama thought it was time to come to an end with them being tortured. This is significant because it shows that Obama ended the torture of terrorists. Obama didn't agree with the methods of getting things out of the terrorists.
- Bill Nye
- Climate realist Marc Marano debates Bill Nye the science guy on Global Warming/Recordings/Culture/2012
- This is when people begin to see major climate change, but continue to have people see global warming as a myth. The intended audience of this interview is people of the world because global warming is an international problem. The purpose is to show people that you can't argue with facts. The point of view of this interview is for the fact of global warming that it is true.
- This reflects popular culture during this time because there was a lot of people arguing that global warming is a myth. There were plenty of debates that show that global warming is all facts and people are being paid to say that global warming is a myth so that they won't lose money. Historians might find this source significant because it really shows how people try to argue against facts. There is no way possible that they could because global warming is a fact, but they continue to try to instead of actually doing something about it.
Your report (15 March) notes that "[the] consultation paper [on gay marriage] will, however, also ask if the status quo should be maintained". Why has this question been introduced if the government has, rightly in my opinion, agreed to "press ahead"? Religious organisations are in a much better position than anyone else to orchestrate opposition, so it goes without saying that a majority of respondents will be against. This puts the government in a needlessly invidious position and will further infuriate religious groups if the plans proceed despite a majority against. Equality is about principle, and should not be about populism. If the government won't withdraw this tokenistic question, they had better commission an independent poll which would give a more reliable measure of public opinion.
Keith Porteous Wood
Executive director, National Secular Society
- Keith Porteous Wood
- March 15, 2012
- Gay Marriage Debate/manuscript and archival/culture/2012
- This is around when there were a lot of homosexuals debating about having Gay Marriage. The intended audience is people debating on gay marriage on which way to vote. The purpose is to persuade them to vote for gay marriage. The point of view seems for gay marriage.
- This source reflects culture because it seems more popular for people to be homosexual and then be okay with it. This has been debated on and they have laws against this. Historians might find this significant because they need to know the opinions of the people. This will help with a decision on whether or not to make gay marriage legal.
The U.S. and world economies are slowing down
So much for the great 2015 economic pickup.
The world economy is on track to grow less this year than last year, according to the latest forecast from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
The OECD gave the global economy a "barely passing grade of B-." That's hardly the mark that workers and politicians want to see.
In March, the OECD was projecting 4% global economic growth for 2015. On Wednesday, it slashed that to 3.1% -- which would be less than the 3.3% growth the world saw last year.
Two of the largest engines of the world economy -- United States and China -- have slowed down.
China simply wasn't able to sustain its incredible growth, and that has had ripple effects around the world. Manufacturing and exports have cooled, and the real estate market isn't the slam dunk that it once was.
In the U.S., the strong dollar has been a drag on growth. American companies are losing money overseas and foreigners aren't buying as many U.S. goods since they appear more expensive.
The OECD slashed its U.S. 2015 growth projection from 3.1% to 2%. If that comes to pass, it would be a dip from last year's 2.4% GDP.
Outlook for America: The U.S. was supposed to lead the way this year, but its economy contracted in the first quarter. Experts say that was a blip and growth will pick up soon. The question is whether the bounce back will be strong enough to lift the American economy to a better year than last year.
In a good sign for workers, hiring has remained strong in the U.S., but people and businesses just aren't spending much money yet. That has constrained growth.
"We've seen real income go up and savings increase, but consumer spending has not improved as much as we expected it to," says Robin Anderson, senior economist at Principal Global Investors. "But we are already starting to see the rebound in the second quarter data."
The projection for 2016 has been cut from 3.0% in March to 2.8% in the OECD report.
"Most economists, including myself, expected that the economy would be normalized by 2015 but we have had to push out our expectations to 2016," says Tim Hopper, chief economist at TIAA-CREF Financial Services.
Outlook for the world: Much of the rest of the world looks equally shaky, if not worse.
If Greece fails to reach an agreement with its creditors, Europe will feel the strain again, especially in business confidence. While Germany's economy remains the lynchpin, overall unemployment is 11.2% in the euro area.
The OECD continues to call for more structural reforms in Europe as well as better access to credit in some countries.
As one of the world's largest economies, China's expected decline in growth in 2015 and 2016 also raises red flags. China's government is reacting quickly with more plans to step up infrastructure spending. Much like in the U.S., the key to getting out of the rough patch will be whether China's growing middle and upper classes keep spending.
The OECD says the global economy could easily get an A grade again, but it will take a lot more efforts from governments and central banks around the world to boost growth.
- CNN News
- The US and world economies are slowing down/texts/Work,Exchange,and technology/2015
- This is current so it seems as though our economy isn't as fast and good as it was just like everyone else in the world. The intended audience is the whole world because everyone is going through this. The purpose is to make everyone aware of what is happening in the world. The point of view is against this economic tragedy.
- This source shows how jobs and everything is effected when the economy is slowing down. If everything is slowing down there would be job loss obviously. A historian would find this significant because it is definitely a current problem. We don't want history to repeat itself and have another Great Depression.
Economics, politics, culture, and America's role in the world from 1997-current date contributed a great amount to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in the United States. Economically it seems that we have grown quickly, but then begins to slow down. Politically the government seems to keep certain things from us, but we began to add more to our democracy. In culture we begin to debate about a lot of things that are of great importance to the world. America's role in the world seems to be to deal with terrorists in there way.