Civil Rights Among America
Brown vs Board of Education 1954
a. 5 separate cases were brought to the supreme court regarding racial segregation in public schools.
b. Civil right cases from Kansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Virginia.
c. The Courts ruled separate public schools unequal. This broke state segregation and helped spark the Civil Rights Movement.
Boycott of Segregated Bus Systems 1954-1956
a. 4 days before the boycott Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. She was later arrested. This Caused the African Americans to boycott the busses in Montgomery, to protest segregated seating.
b.Key figures in the bus boycott were Rosa Parks, African Americans, the Montgomery bus stations.
c.Montgomery had to integrate their bussing system by court's order. Also Martin Luther King Jr. became a strong leader in the Civil rights movement.
Integration of Central High School 1957
a.Due to the Brown Vs. Board of Education trial blacks were now allowed to attend predominantly white kid schools. This caused many issues With the racist people in the South, and soon paratroopers were sent in to guard the few black kids who went toe Little Rock.
b. President Eisenhower protected the little rock nine by sending in paratroopers in to protect them.
c. The Little Rock school system decided to shut down their public school systems rather than integrate them.
First Lunch-Counter Sit In 1960
a. the first Lunch counter sit in took place in Greensboro as part of a series of non violence protest.
b. Four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and technical State University sat at the counter and were refused service.
c. This sit in led to many more which eventually got rid of segregated businesses.
Black Students and Civil Rights Workers sit in White Section of Bus 1961
a. These events were known as freedom rides. It is when blacks sit in the white sections as an attempt to integrate facilities as bus terminal along the way to the south.
b. A group of thirteen blacks and white civil rights activists who were recruited by the Congress of Racial Equality began the freedom rides.
c. This was the first step in integrating the segregated bus system in the south.
Integration of the University of Mississippi 1961
a.)After a legal battle, riots broke out on campus leaving two dead, hundreds wounded, and many arrested. The Kennedy Administration call for about 31,000 National Guardsmen and other federal groups to enforce order.
b.)All of this took place because an African American, James Meredith attempted to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
C.) This even helped bring more integration to southern schools after the Brown Vs. Board of Education Court case.
Murder of Edgar Evans 1963
a. Medgar Evers was assassinated in the driveway, outside his home in jackson, Mississippi.
b. The NAACP leader Medgar Evers was shot to death by a white supremacist, Byron De La Beckwith
c. Evers helped the civil rights movement by, registering African Americans in his area to vote, got witnesses and evidence for the Emmitt Till murder case, and brought national attention to the plight of African Americans in the South.
Four Girls Killed in Church Bombing 1963
a. A bombed exploded at the 16th Street Baptist Church. The church had a predominately black congregation that served as a meeting place for civil rights leaders.
b. Four young girls were killed and many were injured. in outrage of the incident, there were many violent protest against the police and the protesters that gained national attention.
c. the bombing that led to protests gained a lot of national attention and brought more people to help with the civil rights movement and bring light to the large infestation of the KKK groups.
MLK I Have a Dream Speech 1963
a. Americans gathered in Washington DC for the civil rights and religious groups organised for a political rally known s March on Washington for jobs and freedom.
b. More than 200,000 Americans gathered for the March on Washington where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his ¨I Have a Dream¨ speech
c. The ¨I Have a Dream¨ speech became famous and gave call for racial justice and equality. The speech also inspired many Americans to join the civil rights movement.
St Augustine Movement 1964
a.Martin Luther King was sent to jail for trespassing at the Monson Motor Lodge. In protest many African Americans protested by jumping in the motel's pool. in result the Motel owner poured acid in the pool in an attempt to scare them and make them leave.
b. Martin Luther King Jr. many black protesters, police, motel owners
c. Even after desegregation laws passed, there was still hatred towards African Americans.
Murder of 3 Civil Rights Workers 1964
a.)Three Civil Rights workers disappeared on June 21 and when the remains were found, it gained a lot of national attention.
b.) Of the three who disappeared, two were white New Yorkers, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman. Who went to Mississippi to help with the civil rights movements. The third was an African American, James Chaney, a local man. The three men were kidnapped by the KKK and murdered.
c.) The disappearance gained attention from the media and got people to focus on theKK and racism in the South.
Bloody Sunday 1965
A. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference made Alabama focus it’s efforts on registering black voters in the South. The marchers were met with violent resistance by the authorities.
b. The protesters were attempting to reach Selma with protection from the National Guard troop and finally reached Selma in three days.
C. This march, along with King’s assistance, helped raise awareness of the difficulty faced by Southern black voters.
Murder of MLK 1968
a. On April 4th, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot while standing on his balcony outside his second floor room at the Lorraine Motel. He was in Memphis to support a station workers strike.
b. Martin Luther King Jr. was on his way to dinner when he was shot in the jaw and severed his spinal cord. James earl Ray was the man who shot martin Luther King Jr.
c.The murder of Martin Luther King Jr. joined together many civil rights workers. Thousands of people lined the streets to pay tribute to King.